Summary of educational and research activities “Amazing Stones” (middle group)

Children are explorers by nature. An unquenchable thirst for new experiences, curiosity, a constant desire to experiment, and independently seek new information about the world are traditionally considered as the most important features of children's behavior. In accordance with the draft Federal State Educational Standard for preschool education and with the requirements for the results of mastering the basis of the educational program, presented in the form of targets at the stage of completing the level of preschool education: one of the guidelines is curiosity. The child asks questions regarding near and distant objects and phenomena, is interested in cause-and-effect relationships (how? why? why?), tries to independently come up with explanations for natural phenomena and people’s actions. Tends to observe and experiment.

Research activities are of great interest to children. Research provides the child with the opportunity to find answers to the questions “how?” " and why? " Research activity is the natural state of a child, he is determined to understand the world, he wants to know everything, explore, discover, study - it means taking a step into the unknown. This is a huge opportunity for children to think, try, experiment, and most importantly, express themselves. One of the effective methods of understanding the patterns and phenomena of the surrounding world is the method of experimentation, which relates to cognitive and speech development. Children's experimentation has enormous developmental potential. Its main advantage is that it gives children real ideas about the various aspects of the object being studied, about its relationships with other objects and the environment. Children's experimentation is closely related to other types of activities - observation, speech development (the ability to clearly express one's thoughts facilitates the experiment, while the addition of knowledge contributes to the development of speech). In the process of experimentation, children's vocabulary is replenished with words denoting sensory signs of a property, phenomenon or object of nature (color, shape, size: crumples - breaks, high - low - far, soft - hard - warm, etc.).

Goals of experimentation:

  • Maintain preschoolers' interest in the environment and satisfy children's curiosity.
  • Develop cognitive abilities in children (analysis, synthesis, classification, comparison, generalization);
  • To develop thinking, speech and judgment in the process of cognitive and research activities: in making assumptions, selecting verification methods, achieving results, interpreting them and applying them in activities.
  • To cultivate the desire to preserve and protect the natural world, to see its beauty, to follow accessible environmental rules in activity and behavior.
  • To develop experience in following safety rules when conducting experiments.

In our group we use only elementary tests and experiments. Their elementary nature is:

  • firstly, in the nature of the problems being solved: they are unknown only to children;
  • secondly, in the process of these experiments no scientific discoveries occur, but elementary concepts and conclusions are formed;
  • thirdly, they are practically safe;
  • fourthly, such work uses ordinary household, gaming and non-standard equipment.

According to the method of application, experiments are divided into demonstration and frontal, one-time or cyclic (a cycle of observations of water, the growth of plants placed in different conditions, etc.) The demonstration is carried out by the teacher, and the children monitor its implementation. These experiments are carried out when the object under study exists in a single copy, when it cannot be given into the hands of children, or when it poses a certain danger to children (for example, when using a burning candle).

Positive aspects of the demonstration method: 1. Errors during experiments are practically eliminated. 2. When demonstrating just one object, it is easier for the teacher to distribute attention between the object and the children, establish contact with them, and monitor the quality of knowledge acquisition. 3. During demonstration observations, it is easier to monitor compliance with discipline. 4. The risk of safety violations and unforeseen situations is reduced. 5. Hygiene issues are resolved more easily. Demonstration experiments also have weaknesses: 1. Objects are far from children, and children cannot see small details. 2. Each child sees an object from one angle of view. 3. The child is deprived of the opportunity to carry out examination actions and examine the object from all sides. 4. Perception is carried out mainly with the help of one (visual, less often two analyzers; tactile, motor, gustatory and other analyzers are not involved. 5. The emotional level of perception is relatively low. 6. Children’s initiative is reduced to a minimum. 7. Individualization of learning is difficult. Frontal method is when the experiment is carried out by the children themselves. Experiments of this type compensate for the shortcomings of demonstration experiments. But they also have their “pros” and “cons.”

The strengths of frontal experiments are that children can: - see small details well; - examine the object from all sides; — use all analyzers for examination; - realize the inherent need for activity; - work at an individual rhythm, devote as much time to each procedure as required based on your level of preparedness and developed skills. — the emotional impact of frontal experimental games is much higher than demonstration games; — the learning process is individualized. Weaknesses of the frontal method: It is more difficult to find many objects. 2. During a frontal experiment, it is more difficult to monitor the progress of the cognition process, the quality of knowledge assimilation by each child. 3. It is more difficult to establish contact with children. 4. There is a constant lack of synchronization in children’s work. 5. The risk of discipline deterioration increases. 6. The risk of violating safety rules and the occurrence of various unforeseen or undesirable situations increases. The content of the experimental activity is built from four blocks of the pedagogical process. 1. Directly organized activities with children (planned experiments). For the consistent step-by-step development of children's research abilities, educators have developed a long-term plan of experiments and experiments. 2. Joint activities with children (observations, work, artistic creativity). The connection between children's experimentation and visual activity is two-way. The more strongly a child’s visual abilities are developed, the more accurately the result of a natural history experiment will be recorded. At the same time, the more deeply a child studies an object in the process of becoming familiar with nature, the more accurately he will convey its details during visual activity 3. Independent activity of children (work in the laboratory). 4. Joint work with parents (participation in various research projects). Thus, a joint child-parent research project of a preschool student on the topic “Folk Doll” was born. This project was presented at the municipal competition “I am a researcher.” A Chinese proverb says: “Tell me and I will forget, show me and I will remember, let me try and I will understand.” Everything is assimilated firmly and for a long time when the child hears, sees and does it himself. This is the basis for the active introduction of children's experimentation in preschool educational institutions. We place great emphasis on creating conditions for children’s independent experimentation and search activity. Our task is to help children carry out these studies and make them useful.

Structure of children's experimentation:

Identification and formulation of the problem (choice of research topic). For example, having met the heroes of the fairy tale “Bubble, Straw and Lapot”, we began to think about how to help the heroes cross the river. A paper napkin, a piece of cloth, an iron and a wooden plate were lowered into a container with water. They saw that paper, fabric and metal were sinking, but the wooden plate was not. They concluded that if an object does not sink, then it can be floated on. We decided to find out what properties and qualities wood has and how it can be used. This is how the idea of ​​research and the desire to get acquainted with the properties of wood arose. The hypothesis was: does wood have different properties?

Searching for and proposing possible solutions: Drawing up a diagram. First, the tree is cut down, then cleared of branches, the logs are taken to a factory, where they are sawed into boards, and then wooden objects are made (toys, dishes, furniture, doors, musical instruments, etc.). The age of the tree was determined by the number of rings on the tree cuts. After examining, we found that the tree is opaque and each has its own pattern.

Collection of material: First we decided to find out where the wooden plate came from. Looked at the illustrations. The forest is our friend, where different types of trees grow; it is a “factory” that produces wood. Guessed riddles about trees; clarified what main parts the tree consists of.

Generalization of the obtained data. Based on the results of the study, we conclude: The tree is light and floats in water. The wood is hard and easy to work with. The wood is opaque and has its own pattern. Thus, our hypothesis was confirmed - wood has numerous amazing properties, so the best way for the heroes of the fairy tale “Bubble, Straw and Bast” to cross the river is on a wooden raft. This algorithm of work allows you to intensify mental activity and encourages children to conduct independent research.

Experimentation is carried out in all areas of children's activity: eating, studying, playing, walking, sleeping, washing. To do this, we create special conditions in a developing environment that stimulate the enrichment of the development of research activities. One of the conditions for solving problems in experimental activities in kindergarten is the organization of a developmental environment. The object environment surrounds and influences the child from the first minutes of his life. The main requirements for the environment as a developmental tool are to ensure the development of active independent children's activities. We place great emphasis on creating conditions for independent experimentation and search activity of children themselves. The preschool educational institution has equipped experimentation corners in each group so that children can satisfy their research interests at any time in free activity. This work began with the construction of a subject-development environment, the selection of literature on this topic, and the writing of a card index on the topic “Children’s experimentation.” In a mini-laboratory (science center), zones can be allocated: - for a permanent exhibition, where children place a museum, various collections, exhibits, rare objects (shells, stones, crystals, feathers, etc.); - for instruments; — for growing plants; — for storing materials (natural, “waste”); — for conducting experiments; — for unstructured materials (sand-water table or container for water, sand, small stones, etc.). Instruments and equipment that can be placed in a mini-laboratory: Microscopes, magnifying glasses, mirrors, various scales (steelyard, floor, pharmacy, tabletop); magnets, thermometers, binoculars, electrical circuit, ropes, rulers, hourglass, globe, lamp, flashlight, whisks, beaters, soap, brushes, sponges, pipettes, gutters, disposable syringes without needles, food coloring, scissors, screwdrivers, screws, grater, glue, sandpaper, scraps of fabric, glue, wheels, small things made of various materials (wood, plastic, metal), mills. Containers: plastic jars, bottles, glasses of various shapes, sizes, measures, funnels, sieve, molds, spatulas. Materials: natural (acorns, cones, seeds, shells, knots, saw cuts, cereals, etc.); “junk” (corks, sticks, pieces of rubber hoses, cocktail straws, etc.). Unstructured materials: sand, water, sawdust, wood shavings, fallen leaves, crushed foam. To develop the cognitive activity of children and maintain interest in experimental activities in groups, places and equipment have been selected for the “Children's Science Laboratory”, as well as experimentation corners; the corners are constantly updated with new materials in accordance with the age of the children and their interests. Since interest in experimentation arises from an early age, we begin conducting children’s experimentation classes from the 2nd junior group. In early preschool age, research activities are aimed at objects of living and inanimate nature through the use of experiences and experiments. The experience of our educators proves that elementary experimentation is already accessible to children of early, younger age. They are happy to examine clay and sand, learning their properties; splashing in the water, revealing its secrets; they send boats sailing, catch the breeze, try to make foam; turn snow into water, and water into ice. With the help of game characters, we offer children the simplest problem situations: Will a rubber ball sink? How to hide a ring in water from a fox? During the experiment, children express their assumptions about the causes of the observed phenomenon and choose a method for solving a cognitive problem. In the second younger group, children master the actions of transfusion, pouring various materials and substances. Get acquainted with the properties of some materials and inanimate objects: water; sun rays; ice; snow; glass They learn about light sources, that if you shine light on an object, a shadow will appear; about the fact that different objects and animals make different sounds, etc. They brought children to an understanding of such natural phenomena as rain. Watching heavy rain from the window, the children saw how water flows down the glass and what puddles remain on the roads after the rain. After several observations, we drew conclusions: rain can be different (cold, warm, drizzling, heavy, torrential). Most often, it rains when clouds appear in the sky, but sometimes it happens in good weather when the sun is shining, such rain is called “mushroom rain.” It is warm and goes away quickly. How much rain have I known? Count quickly: Rain with wind, Rain with mushrooms, Rain with rainbow-arc, Rain with sun, Rain with hail, Rain with red leaf fall. To show the relationship between living and inanimate nature, we paid attention to how green it becomes after rain, how easy it is to breathe. The children were convinced that rain is water. They compared the water from the tap and from the puddle and noted: the water in the puddle is dirty, but the water from the tap is clean. If you boil tap water, it is suitable for drinking, but water from a puddle is not suitable for drinking. One of the areas of children's experimental activities that we actively use is experiments. We conduct experiments both in class and in free activity. Children explore materials with great pleasure and learn that: • paper tears, wrinkles, does not smooth out, burns, gets wet in water, etc. • wood is durable, rough, gets wet in water, does not sink, etc. • plastic is lightweight , multi-colored, breaks easily, etc. • glass is transparent and multi-colored, fragile, breaks, waterproof • fabric wrinkles and smoothes, gets wet and dries, etc. • water is transparent, has no shape, can shimmer, evaporate, etc. etc. • the air is transparent, can move on its own and moves objects, etc. We carried out a simple experiment with water: - “Why is it dirty in autumn?” We concluded: When water combines with earth, dirt is formed, so after rain it is dirty outside. Thanks to experiments, children compare, contrast, draw conclusions, express their judgments and conclusions. They experience great joy, surprise and even delight from their small and large discoveries, which give children a feeling of satisfaction from the work done. Children love classes where, together with adults, they make their first discoveries, learn to explain and prove. Children are happy to tell their parents about their discoveries, perform the same (or more complex) experiments at home, learn to put forward new problems and solve them independently. Children aged 4-5 years begin to make their first attempts to work independently, but visual control from an adult is necessary - to ensure safety and for moral support, since without constant encouragement and expression of approval, the activity of a four-year-old child quickly fades. In the middle group, children were introduced to the transition of bodies from one state to another (water-ice-water) and were shown the relationship with living nature. To do this, the following experiments were used: turning water into ice. turning ice into water. With the help of illustrations, we found out where water is found in nature, in addition, why and how we use it, and brought us to the concept - we need to save water, not waste it, and do not forget to turn off the tap on time. Also, with children 4-5 years old, we explore objects of inanimate nature: sand, clay, snow, stones, air, water, we try to make foam, etc. Usually, children find it difficult to answer the question of how to see and feel air. To find answers to this question, we conducted a series of experiments: - we breathe air (we blow into a glass of water through a straw, bubbles appear) - is it possible to catch air? — can air be strong? - air movement. From experiments, children learn that air is everywhere, it is transparent, light, and invisible. All living beings need air to breathe: plants, animals, humans. So while walking on the property, we notice that there is no grass on the paths. Why? We try to drip with a stick, and make sure that the ground on the paths is hard, and nearby - on the side of the road - it is loose. We came to the conclusion: since such soil cannot be excavated by a strong person, it means that it is difficult for weak plants to break through it. So the experiment went unnoticed by the children. They asked the children to make a figure from wet and dry sand. Children discuss what kind of sand is being molded and why. Examining sand through a magnifying glass, they discover that it consists of small grains of sand, which explains the flowability of dry sand. Gradually using the selected material, children succeed and enjoy games - experiments with sand (“It crumbles - it doesn’t crumble”, “It molds - it doesn’t mold”, with water (“Floats?”, “Which will sink faster?”). In the middle group, we begin to conduct for the first time experiments to find out the causes of individual phenomena, for example: “Why did this pebble heat up more?” - “Because it is black”; “This handkerchief dried faster. Why?” - “Because we hung it on battery." We examine the composition of the soil, compare the properties of sand and clay. We learn and expand our understanding of the properties of water and air, their significance, the types and properties of fabrics, we learn about the properties of a magnet and a magnifying glass. When getting to know vegetables, children identified them by taste. After tasting carrots, the children learned that they are sweet and not bitter, and from the teacher’s story they learned that they contain a lot of vitamins and are good for our health. Also, in the process of experimentation, we encourage children to ask questions, highlight the sequence of actions, and reflect them in speech when answering to questions like: what did we do? what did we get? Why? We instill in children the skills of interpersonal communication and cooperation: the ability to negotiate, defend their opinions, reason in dialogue with other children. To do this, when discussing problem situations, we draw children’s attention to the opinions of others, teach them to listen to each other, and invite more active children to help shy ones. Working in a laboratory requires compliance with safety regulations. We compiled them together with children and game characters. They are very simple and easy to remember: With sand: If you are pouring sand, have a broom and dustpan nearby. With fire: Remember the rule: Never touch fire alone! With water: Since we are dealing with water, let’s roll up our sleeves with confidence. If you spill water, it’s no problem: a rag is always at hand. An apron is a friend: it helped us, And no one here got wet. With glass: Be careful with glass - it can break. But if it breaks, it’s not a problem, There are true friends: A smart broom, A brother-scoop And a trash can - In a moment they will collect the fragments, They will save our hands. At the end of the work: Have you completed the work? Have you put everything in place?

Experimental activities give children the opportunity for close communication, independence, self-organization, freedom of action and responsibility, and allow cooperation with both adults and peers. After each experiment, we teach children to be independent when cleaning the workplace. The impetus for starting experimentation can be surprise, curiosity, a request or a problem. In the corners live fairy-tale characters who are surprised, ask questions, make discoveries together with children (Pochemuchka, Astrologer, Karkusha). They are small, and the younger one can pass on their experience and feel their importance, which strengthens the position of an “Adult” in the child. At the first stage, the game characters, in the process of joint activity under the guidance of educators, model problem situations. Subsequently, children learn to independently set a goal, put forward hypotheses, think through ways to test it, carry out practical actions, and draw conclusions. It was interesting to watch how the children in the middle group put Karkusha in front of them and told her how to plant a bow correctly, or what can sink and what does not sink. There are also shelves of redundant information in the groups. They display a variety of items. For example, when studying transparent - opaque, we placed transparent and wooden glasses. They carried out an examination: they poured water into glasses and put beads there. Children draw their own conclusions.

We consider the project method to be one of the optimal technologies that supports a competency-oriented approach in education. Using the project method allows you to develop children’s cognitive abilities, teach them to independently construct their knowledge, navigate the information space, and develop critical thinking. Thus, in the second junior group, research and gaming projects were developed, where experimental and gaming activities are used equally. Such as: “Doctor Vitaminkin”, during which children learned in a playful and experimental way how to protect and care for their health, gained knowledge about nutrition, vitamins, and their benefits for human health; during the implementation of the “My Favorite Toy” project, each child was able to not only introduce others to their favorite toy, but also find out what they are like; with the help of the project “They say children are found in cabbage, is it true?” children got acquainted with seeds, stages of growth of kaputa, different varieties of cabbage, dishes and recipes for preparing various cabbage dishes. For example: during the implementation of the educational project “Autumn”, when introducing vegetables, we conducted a “sinking or not sinking” experiment with children: potatoes, onions, tomatoes. During this experiment, the children learned that potatoes sink, but tomatoes and onions float. Thus, the child receives the results that were previously determined by the adult. This can be seen during the final entertainment event “Golden Autumn” for the “Autumn” project. The children showed their knowledge: they named vegetables and fruits, transported the harvest from the garden home, picked mushrooms, played “Falling Leaves”, “Sun and Rain”.

Working with parents It is known that not a single educational or educational task can be successfully solved without fruitful contact with the family and complete mutual understanding between parents and teacher. Our experience has shown that experimental activities involve and “attract” not only preschoolers, but also their parents. For this purpose, we hold parent meetings and consultations where we try to explain to parents that the main thing is to give the child an impulse to independently search for new knowledge, that there is no need to do the child’s work for them. We explain that even though his first results in experimentation will be primitive and inexpressive, it is not they that are important, but the experience of independently searching for the truth. To identify parents’ attitudes toward children’s search and research activity, a survey of parents was conducted. Based on the results of parents’ requests, a consultation day was organized for parents on the topic “Experimental activities at home.” We also developed booklets and instructions for parents: “What not to do and what to do to maintain children’s interest in experimenting,” “How to help a little researcher,” “Entertaining experiments in the kitchen.” There is a permanent section in the parent’s corner “Let’s Experiment!”, in which educators offer parents various forms of conducting experiments and experiments together with their children. For parents, we created a card index of elementary experiences and experiments that can be done at home. For example, “Colored Ice” (ice can be seen not only in winter, but also at any other time of the year if water is frozen in the refrigerator).

The result of this work are interesting stories from children and parents about how they together made soap and paper at home, grew crystals, dyed fabric, made colored pieces of ice. Teachers, together with parents and children, collected collections of postcards about nature, created multimedia educational presentations “The Water Cycle” in nature”, “Rainbow”, “Underwater world”, etc. At the meeting, teachers gave very important advice to parents: do not rush to give your child ready-made answers, give him the opportunity to think for himself about the reasons for this or that phenomenon. Of course, not every child will be able to answer the question right away, give him time. Don’t rush, even after you are convinced that the child, due to his age and little experience, cannot answer them, ask him leading questions, lead him to make the “discovery” himself. Teachers involve parents in creating a cognitive and developmental environment in the group. Parents help in equipping experimentation corners, replenishing them with necessary materials, and help satisfy cognitive interests by experimenting at home.

Childhood years are the most important and how they will pass depends on the parents and on us, teachers. It is very important to reveal to parents in a timely manner the developmental aspects of each child and recommend appropriate parenting techniques.

Analyzing all of the above, we can conclude that specially organized research activities allow our students to obtain information about the objects or phenomena being studied, and the teacher to make the learning process as effective as possible and more fully satisfy the natural curiosity of preschoolers, developing their cognitive activity.

In conclusion, I would like to quote the words of K. E. Timiryazev: “People who have learned... observations and experiments acquire the ability to pose questions themselves and receive factual answers to them at a higher mental and moral level in comparison with those who have not gone through such a school.”

Sinitsyna O.N., teacher

Summary of search and research activities in kindergarten. Middle group

Summary of search and research activities in the middle group on the topic: “Research laboratory.
Flour and salt" Author: Elena Evgenievna Nefedenko, teacher at MBDOU combined type kindergarten-nursery No. 1 "Sun" Description of the material: this material is a summary of joint experimentation activities with children aimed at elucidating the properties of flour and salt. The material will be useful to educators and parents. Integration of educational areas: “Cognitive development” “Speech development” “Artistic and aesthetic development” “Physical development” Goal: development of cognitive and research activities of children, experimenting with flour and salt. Objectives: Educational: - introduce children to the properties of flour and salt using experimental techniques; — to develop in children the ability to foresee the consequences of these substances; — will introduce children to the process of preparing salted dough for modeling. Developmental: - develop cognitive interest in research and experimentation; — develop the ability to draw conclusions based on research results; - develop tactile sensations; - develop the ability to use mnemonic diagrams and facilitate a brief presentation of a familiar work. Educational: - cultivate respect for work, careful attitude to bread; — cultivate accuracy when performing actions during experiments; - develop the skill of cooperation. Materials and equipment: teacher: mnemonic diagrams, apron, oilcloth, disposable plates with flour and salt, 2 glasses of water, napkins, sieve, bowl, spoon, vegetable oil, baking sheet. children (for each): an apron, oilcloth, 2 disposable plates with flour and salt, 2 glasses of water, spoons, a strainer, napkins. Previous work: reading the fairy tale “The Cockerel and Two Little Mice”, looking at the illustrations. Methods and techniques: - verbal: questions-explanations; — practical: research activities; - gaming: acting out a poem; — visual: studying flour and salt, kneading dough. Move. 1. Organizational moment. Children stand near the teacher. Educator. We got together again to make it more interesting. We learn a lot of new things. So, guys, let's start? 2. Main part. Educator. Children, we read the fairy tale “The Cockerel and Two Mice.” I propose to remember the actions of the cockerel and helper diagrams will help us with this. Working with mnemonic diagrams. (The cockerel found a spikelet, threshed it, collected the grains in a bag, took the grains to the mill, ground the grains into flour, kneaded the dough, baked pies) Educator. Today, I invite you to the experimental laboratory. Go to your seats. (children sit at tables) Educator. What do you think is on your plates? (children's answers) Educator. We will explore flour and salt. Experiment No. 1 “What color” Conclusion: salt and flour are white. Experiment No. 2 “Exploring by touch” (Children dip their hands alternately in flour and salt and name their sensations) Conclusion: flour: warm, crumbly, soft; salt: crumbly, hard, hard. Experiment No. 3 “We examine the hardness and size of particles” Crush the flour and salt with a spoon. Conclusion: flour: soft, easy to crush; salt: hard and hard salt cannot be crushed with a spoon. Sift through a sieve. Conclusion: flour: easy to sift, consists of small particles; salt: not sifted, consists of large particles. Experiment No. 4 “What do they smell like?” Children carefully bring flour and salt to their noses and sniff. Conclusion: flour and salt are odorless. Experiment No. 5 “Determining by taste” Educator. Children, be careful! You cannot conduct this experiment yourself unless an adult allows it. Since we know that we have flour and salt in front of us, I allow you to taste a little on the tip of your tongue and determine the taste of these substances. Conclusion: flour: tasteless; salt: salty. Experiment No. 6 “Solubility in water” Children place a spoonful of flour and salt in separate glasses of water and mix. Conclusion: Flour: Flour absorbs water and clumps in water; salt: dissolves in water. Dynamic pause. First it grew in the wild in the field. In the summer it blossomed and made ears (we shake our hands raised up)
And then threshed
(we knock our fists against each other)
It suddenly turned into grain
(fingers shake hands)
From grain into flour and dough
(they clench and unclench their fists)
In the store took his place
(we stretch our arms forward, palms up)
He grew up under the blue sky
(we raise our hands up) And he came to the table with bread
(we show round bread) Educator.
Children, I suggest you knead the dough and make pies, bread or bagels. To do this, we will mix our test substances (flour and salt), add a little water and knead the dough. To prevent the dough from sticking to your hands, we will add a little vegetable oil. (Children take part in kneading the dough)
Now let’s get to work and make pies, bread or bagels. 3. Reflection. Educator. What substances did we study today? How are these substances similar and how are they different? After the children have made the salt dough products, place them on a baking sheet and take them to the kitchen and bake. In the future, we will use the products for role-playing games.

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What did we learn today?
What can happen to water? (
Water can pour, or it can splash).

“Plants breathe easier if the soil is watered and loosened.”

Offer to look at the soil in the flowerbed and touch it. What does it feel like? (Dry, hard). Can I loosen it with a stick? Why did she become like this? Why is it so dry? (The sun dried it out). In such soil, plants have trouble breathing. Now we will water the plants in the flowerbed. After watering: feel the soil in the flowerbed. What is she like now? (Wet). Does the stick go into the ground easily? Now we will loosen it, and the plants will begin to breathe.


: What did we learn today? When do plants breathe easier? (Plants breathe easier if the soil is watered and loosened).

“Which puddle will dry up faster?”

Guys, do you remember what remains after the rain? (Puddles). The rain is sometimes very heavy, and after it there are large puddles, and after a little rain the puddles are: (small). Offers to see which puddle will dry faster - large or small. (The teacher spills water on the asphalt, creating puddles of different sizes). Why did the small puddle dry up faster? (There is less water there). And large puddles sometimes take a whole day to dry up.


What did we learn today? Which puddle dries out faster - big or small? (A small puddle dries faster).

“Dry sand can crumble.”

Offer to take a handful of sand into your fist and release it in a small stream. What happens to dry sand? (It pours out).


What did we learn today? Dry sand pours out.

“Wet sand takes any desired shape.”

Offer to take a handful of sand into your fist and release it in a small stream. What happens to dry sand? (It pours out). Let's try to build something out of dry sand. Do you get figures? Let's try to wet dry sand. Take it in your fist and try to pour it out. Does it also crumble easily? (No). Pour it into the molds. Make figures. It turns out? What kind of figures did you get? What kind of sand were you able to make the figures from? (From wet).


What did we learn today? What kind of sand can you make figures from? (From wet).

Glass, its qualities and properties.


Recognize objects made of glass; determine its qualities (surface structure, thickness, transparency) and properties (fragility, melting, thermal conductivity).

Game material

: Glass cups and tubes, colored water, alcohol lamp, matches, algorithm for describing the properties of the material.

Progress of the game

: An adult and children pour colored water into a glass glass and ask why you can see what is in the glass (it is transparent). Then the adult runs his fingers over the surface of the glass, determines its structure and places the glass without water in a sunny place in order to determine the change in the temperature of the glass after a few minutes. Next, the adult takes a glass tube with a diameter of 5 mm and places its middle part in the flame of an alcohol lamp. After strong heating, it bends or stretches - the glass melts under the influence of high temperature. When dropped even from a small height, glass objects break (fragile). Children create an algorithm for describing the properties of a material.

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