Speech development in the first junior group. Speech development classes at preschool educational institutions


When and how does speech develop?

Speech development is recommended to begin with the birth of a child. Already in infancy, the baby isolates human speech from the flow of other sounds, listens to the words of adults, and tries to imitate what he hears. Up to one year, the child “hoots” (makes sounds similar to [g], [k], [x]), “booms,” babbles, and after the first round date in his life he tries to pronounce words.

In a preschool institution, close attention is paid to the speech of pupils. Purposeful work on the formation of speech skills begins already in early age groups. Speech development in the first junior group is one of the most important educational tasks, the solution of which determines the child’s education at the next age stages.

Communicative activity develops in the process of communication. To understand how a teacher works to develop children’s speech, it is necessary to consider the forms of communication characteristic of preschoolers.

Forms of communication in childhood

In relation to infancy, early childhood and preschool age, scientists distinguish situational-personal, situational-business, extra-situational-cognitive and extra-situational-personal forms of communication. The first occurs in the first year of life, when the child develops a revival complex. The baby recognizes close adults, smiles, waves his arms. During this period, it is important for mothers, fathers and other relatives to talk with their child, sing songs to him, and tell him nursery rhymes.

It is appropriate to talk about situational business communication when the baby knows how to sit and learns to interact with objects: shakes a rattle, places a cube on a cube, puts one part of a toy into another. The adult shows the methods of action and encourages the child.

Speech development in children

Extra-situational-cognitive communication begins at 2-3 years of age, when the baby asks questions about the world around him. An adult’s answers help you learn a lot of new things and develop. The shift of the child’s interests towards relationships between people, the place and role of a person in society indicates the emergence of extra-situational-personal communication. The readiness to talk about such topics appears by the age of 6-7 years.

SPEECH DEVELOPMENT in 1st junior group

SOFTWARE TASKS Enrichment of passive and active vocabulary

• Help expand children’s ideas about the world around them and express their knowledge and impressions in words:

- nouns: objects, their parts; objects and natural phenomena (trees, leaves, grass, flowers, snow, rain, wind, names of animals);

- generalizing words: toys, dishes, clothes, animals;

- verbs denoting actions with objects (put, place, etc.); actions characterizing the attitude towards people, including peers (sorry, give, help); labor actions of oneself and adults (cleaning, assembling, lifting, washing, etc.); actions expressing emotional state and relationships (rejoices, laughs, cries, regrets);

- verbs not only in the present, but in the past, future tense

- (I’m walking, I’m walking, I’ll go, I’m drawing, I’m drawing, I’ll be drawing);

- adjectives denoting qualitative characteristics of objects (small, round, soft, heavy, light) and natural phenomena (strong wind, black cloud, clear sky);

- pronouns (I, you, he, she, we, they, my, yours, me, you);

— adverbs denoting spatial and temporal relationships (above, below, next to, quickly, slowly).

Formation of grammatical structure of speech

• Agree nouns and pronouns with verbs and adjectives.

• Use prepositions in speech (in, on, for, under), conjunctions (because, so that).

• Use question words (Where? Where? Who? What? etc.) and various phrases.

Education of sound culture of speech

• Create conditions for the development of phonemic hearing, articulatory and vocal apparatus, speech breathing. Learn to pronounce isolated vowels and consonants (except for whistling, hissing and sonorant sounds), correctly reproduce onomatopoeia and words.

• Form intonation expressiveness of speech.

Development of coherent speech

• Improve understanding of adult speech: the ability to carry out his instructions; listen and perceive short stories without

• visual support.

• Develop the ability to enter into dialogue, address questions, requests, using polite words (“hello”, “goodbye”, “thank you”, “please”, etc.); stimulate proactive appeals in joint actions and games.

• Develop the ability to listen and retell fairy tales (together with an adult - persuade him). To promote the development of the ability, on one’s own initiative or at the suggestion of an adult, to talk about what is shown in the pictures, about toys, about events from personal experience (as a rule, mainly in the second half of the year).

To develop children's interest and positive attitude towards reading, listening, and dramatizing works of art together with adults

• a prerequisite for the development of the need to read fiction.

• Develop an understanding of the meaning of the situation described in a literary work, learn to express one’s attitude: in words (replicas, repetitions, questions), emotions and actions (carries a book, acts with toys, puppet theater characters).

Support and develop the child’s artistic preferences.

• Promote the development of children's imagination.

CONTENT AND ORGANIZATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

Speech development occurs in the process of meaningful communication with children in different types of activities. When implementing the content of different educational areas. Communication accompanies joint games, joint subject activities, etc. During this period, an adult is an attractive object of communication for the child, interesting in itself, especially close

adult. But even among close people, the child prefers those who communicate with him interestingly, in a businesslike manner, since the leading type of activity at this age is objective activity,

meeting the need for knowledge of the objective world and ways of acting with objects. The so-called “object fetishism,” as defined by psychologists, which dominates the child’s system of needs during this period, manifests itself in all types of activities: gaming, visual,

constructive, etc.

However, the process of learning and mastering this world is impossible without an adult. Therefore, for a child, an adult is a model of behavior, performing actions that are interesting for children. An adult is a bearer of a model, a norm, explaining and helping, collaborating with the child in the process of mastering the objects around him. An adult is a partner and at the same time a connoisseur, friendly, supportive, optimistic in assessing the process and the possibilities of the child achieving a result, coming to the rescue in cases of difficulties, believing in the child’s capabilities, excluding situations of hopelessness, bitter failures - range

interaction with the child in his zone of proximal development.

soon understands the importance and necessity of verbal methods of communication and masters them.

Thus, meaningful joint activity that requires coordination of interests, methods of action, and achieving a result that is interesting for the child is the basis for the child’s need for business communication, the satisfaction of which requires verbal methods of interaction in the child-adult community.

The most important condition for mastering verbal methods of communication is clear, clear, competent speech of people from the immediate environment. The native language, a natural speech space, neutral, perhaps, in relation to a particular child, not directly addressed to him in a given situation and therefore more complex in content, in vocabulary and grammatical support, is also necessary.

A child, from the context, spontaneously learns the meaning of individual words, ways of constructing sentences, and often appropriately reproduces them on his own initiative in a specific situation. Even more important are targeted natural dialogues with children in situations of joint games, construction, drawing, and cognitive observations.

A sample of an adult’s speech communication, simple in content, concise and accessible in terms of vocabulary and sentences, explanations, questions, comments, targeted activation in the speech of children of the dictionary, simple sentences, an exercise in their use that is invisible to the child

- an important component of meaningful interaction with children.

An exemplary speech space is unthinkable without the artistic word, which simultaneously affects the cognitive and emotional sphere of the child. Therefore, it is important to create conditions for the development of understanding and emotional attitude to the verbal artistic image. On this basis, it is necessary to promote the child’s independent, proactive approach to the artistic image: tell fairy tales and poems, look at books and illustrations, offer something to read, stage nursery rhymes, short poems, fragments of fairy tales.

Often children transfer an artistic image to different life situations that are close in content to the essence of this image. For example, a child climbed up a hill and shouts to the children: “I sit high, I look far away”; The kid draws on a piece of paper with a felt-tip pen and comments on his scribbles: “This is a cow, and this is a cow’s leg. And this doodle shark jumped up. Do you see? Now he’ll eat it!”).

Such an appeal to the artistic word, its transfer to new situations is the beginning of a creative attitude towards the artistic image. Saturating a child’s life with communication with books, the appropriate use of artistic images in a child’s life is the basis for the subsequent formation and development of a person’s not just literate, but imaginative, bright, beautiful, non-standard, convincing human speech. Therefore, it is necessary to continue to develop children’s interest in literature, using the literary word in various types of activities in which it is organic and natural.

can come in.

Recommended works of art (sample list)

Based on Russian folklore. “New mittens”, “Owl-owl”, “Come on, dear shepherdess”, “Oak-oaks”, “I’ll bake a pie for Tanya”, “Okay, okay, grandma baked pancakes”, “Gu-gu-gu -gu-gu-gu, in the green meadow”, “The cat went to the market”, “Rock-hen”, “Our ducks in the morning - quack-quack-quack”, “Like our cat”, “Zainka on the hay ", "Two birds were flying", "We lived with grandma", "Wolf-wolf", "You are geese, geese", "Little cowardly hare", "Gulya, gula-dove", "Like ours at the gate", " Like on thin ice”, “Rain, rain, more!”, “Rainbow-arc”.

Fairy tales. “The Ryaba Hen”, “Turnip”, “Kolobok” (arranged by K.D. Ushinsky), “Teremok”, “Masha and the Bear” (arranged by M. Bulatov).

Author's works. E.E. Moshkovskaya. “Doctor, doctor, what should we do?”; G.M. Novitskaya. “The river is flowing”; R.S. Sef. “The one who washes his hands with soap”, “Although I’m not big”; R.A. Kudasheva. "The Forest Raised a Christmas Tree"; M. Rodina. "Snowflakes".

Poems. A.L. Barto. “Toys” (“Bunny”, “Teddy Bear”, “Bull”, “Airplane”, etc.), fragments from the poems “Roaring Girl”, “Dirty Girl”, “April”; V. Biryukov. “The beetle has woken up”;

A. G. Kostetsky. "Barefoot Gosling"; E.E. Moshkovskaya. "Ears"; G.R. Lagzdyn. “Cockerel”, “Why is Egorka alone?”, “Bed”, “Washing”; E.A. Blaginina. “That’s what a mother is”, “We blow bubbles” (excerpt), “Rainbow”, “Our Masha”; E. Garlapak. "Snow Woman"; G.A. Ladonshchikov. "Winter"; Z.N. Alexandrova. “In little mittens”, “Felt boots”, “Delicious porridge”, “My bear”; N.P. Sakonskaya. “Where is my finger?”; I.P. Tokmakova. “Porridge”, “Garden”, “Autumn Leaves”, “Let’s Play”, “Bainki”, “Like on a hill - snow, snow”; N.V. Pikuleva. "Invitation to Dinner"; L. Gerasimova. “Legs are dancing”, “The Cherry Orchard”, “Gift for a Doll”, “Spring”; E.N. Uspensky. “About a boy who fights with a spatula”, “About a girl who sucks her thumb all the time”; G.A. Ladonshchikov. “Play Together”, “On the Sand”; L.M. Kvitko. “Swing” (excerpt); S.Ya. Marshak. "Ball"; L. Gerasimova. “Sunny Bunny”, “I draw polka dots”, “I draw the evening”, “We build a fortress from sand”;

B. D. Berestov. “Sick Doll”, “Sparrows”, “Happy Summer”; P.A. Samples “Treating a doll”; S.B. Kaputikyan. “Masha is drawing” (excerpt), “Masha is having lunch”; S.Ya. Marshak. "Children in a Cage", "The Tale of a Stupid Mouse"; L.N. Tolstoy. “Nastya had a doll”, “Three Bears”; K.I. Chukovsky. "Chick"; V.G. Suteev. “Chicken and Duckling”, “Under the Mushroom”, “Who Said Meow”; V.F. Korkin. “What grows in our garden bed?”; P.N. Voronko. "Pie"; M.A. Poznanskaya. "It is snowing"; O.I. Vysotskaya. "Snow Bunny"; B.V. Zakhoder. "Builders"; V.A. Levin. “Sparrow Bathing” (excerpt); A.N. Pleshcheev. "Autumn has come"; A. Brodsky. "Sunny Bunnies"; AND I. Yashin. "After the rain".

Speech development in the first junior group

The first junior group is attended by children from two to three years old. Since at this age there is a transition from situational-business to non-situational-cognitive communication, the development of speech in children is carried out in the process of dialogue. The teacher talks with the students about what is in their field of vision. The little ones learn to understand and carry out the instructions of the teacher, the requests of their peers, and formulate their own statements.

The teacher teaches students to correctly articulate the sounds [a], [o], [u], [i], [s], [m], [b], [p], [n], [t], [d], [k], [g], [v], [f], reproduce intonation, tempo, rhythmic pattern of speech, monitor speech breathing.

The teacher expands the children's vocabulary. In addition to nouns - names of toys, clothes, tableware, interior design, adjectives ("white cup"), verbs, adverbs ("the cup is on the table"), prepositions ("Olya came to the table") are introduced.

Children’s attention is also drawn to the word-formative capabilities of the language (“the rug is on the floor,” “the rattle is rattling”) and generalizations (“toys,” “clothes,” “dishes”). Onomatopoeic and lightweight words (“av-av”, “bi-bi”) are replaced by commonly used ones (“dog”, “car”).

The grammatical structure of children’s speech is also a matter of concern for the teacher. Under the guidance of a teacher, kids:

  • change nouns by numbers and cases (“one spoon - many spoons”), verbs by persons and numbers (“I’m going and you’re going - we’re going”), tenses (“the bear is coming, the bear has come”);
  • learn to use the imperative mood of the verb (“bunny, dance”);
  • form diminutive names (“doll”, “car”);
  • build simple and complex sentences (“the doll wanted to sleep, and I put it in the crib”).

“Speech development in the first junior group” (from work experience)

“Speech development in the first junior group” (from work experience).

Teacher of the first qualification category Gallyamova N.N.

MBDOU "Kindergarten "Rainbow" urban settlement Aksubaevo.

Speech development in the first junior group (from work experience)

The program of education and training in kindergarten indicates all the tasks for speech development in each age group. This task is given serious attention in kindergarten. What are the tasks in the first junior group for speech development? This:

1. Developmental speech environment.

2. Formation of a dictionary.

3. Sound culture of speech.

4. The grammatical structure of speech.

5. Coherent speech.

The successful implementation of all these tasks depends, first of all, on the way of life of the group, the atmosphere in which the child is raised, and on a specially designed, thoughtful environment.

Children of the third year of life really need communication. They listen carefully to the explanations of adults, and often begin to turn to them with questions: “How?”, “What is this?”, “Why?”, “Where?”. Children receive new experiences, which is a necessary condition for their mental development.

Speech development is one of the most important areas of work, which ensures the modern psychological development of a child in his third year of life. As has already been said, one of the tasks of speech development is a developing speech environment, that is, creating conditions for children under which they will feel comfortable communicating with each other or verbally addressing adults. The child’s passive and active vocabulary should also be verbally enriched; the teacher should use nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and prepositions in his speech. To do this you need the following:

1. Listen to the child carefully and interestedly.

2. Involve children in conversation.

3. Talk a lot yourself.

4. Help them make verbal contact with adults and relatives.

At the beginning of the adaptation period, when planning, I carefully select materials on speech development. We repeat works familiar to children. Children's speech improves quickly under the guidance of adults. While observing on walks, while looking at plants in the beds, while playing with objects (hoops, balls, spatulas) and examining them, I teach children to do something together, to hear the teacher, and, of course, develop speech. Traveling around the territory of the kindergarten, in a group, helps a lot, children listen carefully and understand the teacher’s words, willingly carry out instructions (bring something, say something). Also, during the adaptation period, a very interesting game takes place: “Who is good and who is handsome?” I do this both on a walk and in a group. Children really like her. They enjoy continuing to play this game throughout the year.

The process of vocabulary formation is ongoing: during observations of cultural and hygienic skills (towel, hanger, sink, handkerchief, while looking at albums, “Pets”, “Transport”, “Dishes”, “Vegetables”, “Shoes”, “Clothes”, “Fruits”... during board games.

It is advisable to encourage children to use words in independent speech. When playing the game “Loto for Little Ones” (vegetables and fruits), I give a sample answer to the question. The teacher asks: “Who has carrots?”, and the child answers: “I have carrots.” By the end of the school year, many children can independently act as a leader.

Vocabulary work is an integral part of GCD for speech development. In my work I use techniques such as:

1. Display with a title.

2. Repeated repetition of a new word or phrase.

3. Explanation of the origin of the word (frog-frog, mouse-norushka).

4. Adults use a new word in combination with familiar words. (Pecks. The chicken pecks. She has a beak. And the chickens have a beak. And the chickens peck. They peck at the grains. The chicken pecks quickly, and the chickens try to peck quickly.)

Techniques for activating the dictionary include the following:

1. Questions. I ask the children simple questions: “Who, what? ”, and in a more complex form “What are you wearing? ", "What's your luck? "

2. Didactic games, exercises suggesting the use of words related to different parts of speech. For example: d.u. "Up down". The doll climbs the ladder: “up - up - up. Difficult". And the doll goes down: “Down - down - jump down. Easily! “In the future, this exercise is repeated while walking. Children go up and down the stairs, pronouncing their words.

The vocal apparatus, which is still very fragile in children of this age, is also of no small importance in educating the sound culture of speech. Children do not know how to regulate their vocal apparatus at all. Children are given tasks in which the same sounds or sound combinations must be pronounced at different volumes. “How does the dog bark? “Woof - woof” - loudly. How does a puppy bark? “The children say quietly: “woof - woof.” How does a cat meow? Like a kitten...” While developing the vocal apparatus, we must remember the need for an individual approach and praise even the child’s minor successes. From the age of two, it is necessary to teach a child to use a moderate rate of speech. This, of course, is the teacher’s personal example: “Repeat like me.”

Don't forget about speech breathing. It ensures the correct pronunciation of sounds and phrases. I carry out exercises such as “Breeze” (we blow on the plumes, snowflakes). The distance from the plumes to the child’s lips should be about 8 – 10 cm. In my work I also use such exercises as “Sing a long song - y - y - y together” or same as “How Mashenka screamed loudly au - au - au.”

In my younger group there are children who speak poorly or do not speak at all. I pay special attention to them, communicate more with them, purposefully enrich their passive reserve. When talking to a child, I make sure to monitor the pace of speech. From this age I try to teach children to use a moderate speech rate. Changing the tempo of speech is an integral part of its intonation expressiveness.

By the end of the year, children in our group can carry out simple verbal instructions, perceive simple stories without the use of visual aids (pictures, etc.); begin to understand short stories about events that did not take place in their personal experience. They have a well-developed ability to imitate, expressed in the ability to repeat movements, actions, words and simple phrases after an adult. Children readily respond to my offers to read, listen to a story or fairy tale, and look at the pictures in a book together.

Naturally, the full development of the speech of younger preschoolers is impossible without targeted pedagogical work outside of class. This work involves a variety of games for repetition and consolidation of program content: outdoor games with texts, round dances, board-printed and didactic games, dramatization games and others. I spend them with a small number of children (2-6 people) at any time of the day.

I try to read familiar or new works of fiction to children every day (Anthology for preschoolers 2-4 years old / compiled by N. P. Ilchuk, V. V. Gerbova, L. N. Eliseeva, N. B. Baburova - M., 1996 , 1997, 1998), as well as any other anthologies and books addressed to children of primary preschool age. Numerous collections of literature contain works that will make communication with children at one time or another in the daily routine more meaningful: when washing, eating, while playing, when preparing for bed, on a walk, as well as humorous poems. For example, “Admonition” by S. Marshak: “Don’t sit on nettles; if you sit, don’t be angry.”

During a walk, children show how big legs walk (to-o-o-p, to-o-o-p) and little legs run (to-o-o-p, to-o-o-p) to the text of the corresponding nursery rhyme. The nursery rhyme “Okay, okay...” helps me start a conversation with the kids about how they spent their weekends or holidays, which of them visited grandma, how grandma greeted them, what she treated them to.

Working with children in younger groups, I came to the conclusion that not all children perceive the teacher’s speech in the same way. Each child has his own characteristics of speech development and his own shortcomings. Children are still very withdrawn and reluctant to communicate, and not with all adults. Many people still find it difficult to accompany their actions with words, for example: draw and talk about what is drawn. Complex sentences practically do not exist yet. Children do not always perceive a story without illustrations, without showing objects. Therefore, for the successful development of children, I use pictures, a flannelgraph, as well as a magnetic board and thematic sets of magnets. It is very convenient and helps both in class and in everyday life. At the same time, familiar words and actions seem to come to life, which contributes to better assimilation of a particular work. The child can manipulate the characters himself.

Theatrical play, as one of its types, is an effective means of socializing preschool children in the process of understanding the moral implications of a literary or folklore work and participating in a game that is collective in nature, which creates favorable conditions for developing a sense of partnership and mastering ways of positive interaction. In theatrical play, emotional development is carried out: children get acquainted with the feelings and mood of the characters, master the ways of their external expression, and understand the reasons for this or that mood. Theatrical play is also of great importance for speech development (improving dialogues, mastering the expressiveness of speech). Finally, theatrical play is a means of self-expression and self-realization for the child.

In dramatization games, the child, playing a role as an “artist,” independently creates an image with the help of verbal and non-verbal expressiveness. Types of dramatization are games - imitations of images of animals, people, literary characters; role-playing dialogues based on text; staging of works; improvisation games with the playing out of a plot (or several plots) without prior preparation. I believe that sensory education and development are of great importance in the development of a child’s speech. The child draws his first ideas about the world around him, the material environment, with the help of various analyzers, while the word consolidates the ideas received through sensory means. For children, words are indeed the “second originals of reality”, the first being the images of the world around them, that is, language develops in a visually effective way. For a child to understand a name, he must see the object with which it is associated.

Sensory and speech development occur in close unity, therefore, the work on speech development cannot be separated from the work on the development of the senses and perception. The formation of speech is inextricably linked with the comprehension of things, and vice versa, the reality surrounding the child is an inexhaustible source that should be used to enrich the language.

By becoming familiar with color, shape and size, the child enriches his vocabulary, sound analysis of speech, ear for music, and so on. To do this, I make manuals that help the child better navigate and understand objects. For example, the game “What color”. I give children pictures depicting various objects, fruits, vegetables (green - cucumber, red - flag, red - strawberry, yellow - lemon, and so on). Then I show a square of some color and the children who have an object of that color raise their pictures. So, we get acquainted with color and reinforce the names of objects and enrich the children’s vocabulary.

So, the painstaking work on developing the speech of my students over three years has yielded positive results. In conclusion, I would like to say that our common goal is to raise a comprehensively developed healthy child. Currently, all over the world attention is drawn to preschool childhood. Numerous studies indicate that preschool age is the period of the most intense physical and spiritual development of the human individual, and the future of the child largely depends on what pedagogical and hygienic conditions are created for this early development, how physically strong and healthy he will be , what mental abilities and moral qualities he will have when he becomes an adult.

Forms of work on speech development

The development of speech in the garden occurs in specially organized classes and in everyday life. With children 2-3 years old, the teacher plays different games, invites the little ones to do speech exercises, tells fairy tales, reads nursery rhymes and short poems by heart. Classes are conducted in subgroups.

The teacher talks with the children in the morning, during a walk, during games, after a nap or in other free time. The conversation arises spontaneously or is planned (the teacher sets the task of repeating a learned poem, automating an intractable sound, etc.). If the teacher talks to one child, then this is individual work. This is how speech develops in children.

“Classes on speech development in the first junior group of kindergarten”

“Program of education and training in kindergarten” edited by M.A. Vasilyeva, V.V. Gerbova, T.S. Komarova, based on the recommendations of SanPiN, in the first junior group recommends conducting eight classes per month on speech development and introducing children to fiction, lasting 8–10 minutes.

Some activities - dramatization of fairy tales, observations, didactic and outdoor games, accompanied by the reading of nursery rhymes or original poems, are carried out with the entire group of children. Classes aimed at inducing complex speech expressions in children or developing new skills in them (for example, hearing, listening and understanding a story without visual accompaniment) are conducted in subgroups. Children with more or less the same level of development are selected into subgroups. It is known that a speech skill cannot be formed in one lesson, therefore the program material that was studied in the previous lesson is usually repeated in the next one, and the interval between them should be no more than 1-3 days. In the future, the intervals between classes during which certain speech skills are improved can be increased. Observations have shown that 1-2 lessons are enough for a child of the third year of life to master some skills, and much more time to master others, for example, to dramatize excerpts from fairy tales, perceive plot pictures and convey their impressions in speech. In the first junior group, in many classes, in addition to the leading task, several more problems are solved. For example, in parallel with solving the main task of the lesson - introducing children to a nursery rhyme, the teacher practices children in expressive reading of poetic lines; Practices clear and correct pronunciation of onomatopoeic words. In the first junior group, combined classes, consisting of several parts, each of which is devoted to solving a single problem, begin to occupy a significant place in the educational process. These problems can be solved using various software materials. A wide variety of options are productive: repeated telling of fairy tales and exercises to develop the sound culture of speech; looking at a painting and reading a poem; telling without showing and didactic game. Younger preschoolers love to study, but their voluntary attention and memory are imperfect. The child has difficulty concentrating on what is not interesting to him, what did not surprise him, what did not bring him joy. Therefore, when planning a lesson with children, you need to carefully think about what to teach kids and how best to do it. The emotional attitude towards the upcoming lesson is extremely important. It helps to “include” the baby in active work, increasing its efficiency from the first minutes. For example: “Today I will read you a very interesting poem about how a fox with a box ran through the forest,” says the teacher. "Where is she? - the children are interested. - Show!" - “I’ll definitely show you.” Now we’ll play, I’ll show you everything, and I’ll tell you about everything,” the teacher replies. You can put the toys that will be demonstrated during the lesson on the table in advance (3-4 minutes before class), allowing the children to touch and move them. But at the same time, children should be taught to follow the rule: toys prepared for the lesson can only be played on the teacher’s table; they cannot be taken away. Often, a display requires a wind-up toy or a toy that is especially attractive to children and “comes” only for classes. The children's desire to hold this object is so great that they each pull it in their own direction. In such cases, the toy must be placed so that everyone can see it clearly, but cannot reach it (for example, on a piano, on a shelf). Kids quickly get used to the fact that the toy, displayed before class, will be used on it. The children look at it, exchange impressions, and ask the teacher. During the lesson, it is necessary to support the desire of younger preschoolers to learn. Children need to be seated in such a way (in a semicircle; at tables standing separately or moved together, etc.) so that they do not interfere with each other (especially when imitating some actions). It is equally important that easily excitable children be close to calm, balanced peers. Kids should clearly see the teacher and the objects (pictures) that he shows. Distractions should be excluded (for example, if a cage with a bird falls into the child’s field of view, it needs to be rearranged). Children of the third year of life are prone to imitation (both the teacher and their peers). They are easily “infected” by the mood of their comrades and gladly imitate both desirable and undesirable actions. As soon as one child starts looking under the chair, after 1-2 minutes, if the teacher fails to switch the attention of the children, half the group will imitate the baby. In this case, you should not resort to disciplinary remarks (“Don’t sway, sit quietly!”). It is more advisable to resort to a toy brought to class. For example, tell her: “Don’t be scared, mouse, it’s not the cat who came. It was Vova who accidentally rattled his chair.” Or turn to a child who has begun to play pranks: “Here, Vova, hold the mouse. Yes, sit quietly, don’t scare (don’t drop) her.” In children of this age, bright, beautiful objects and pictures make them want to look at them longer, so the illustrative material shown in class should be in good condition, tastefully designed and attractive to children. Manuals should be placed so that time is not wasted searching for them. If the pictures fall off the flannelograph or the battery of an electric toy turns out to be unusable, then the normal course of the lesson will be disrupted and the children’s perception of the material will be difficult. The teacher’s speech and his ability to talk with children are of great importance. The teacher’s speech should be clear, expressive, and unhurried. Words and phrases spoken to children should not be random. If possible, they should be thought through in advance. This is especially true for those figures of speech that the teacher seeks to make available to the child’s own statements: words denoting the qualities of objects, syntactic constructions, in particular sentences with homogeneous members, etc. Using them in class, approving the attempts of a particular child to reproduce a word or sentence, the teacher thereby enriches the children’s active speech. In the first junior group, the teacher teaches children to understand the question and answer it. But if for some reason the child is silent and the pause drags on, it is more advisable to suggest an answer, repeat it with the children, and after some time ask the child the same question again. It is known that it is very easy to suggest something to a child of the third year of life. It is worth remembering this feature when teaching children. (“Anya will succeed... Vova will be able to... Alyosha will think now and will certainly find the right picture (toy)...", etc.). Any conversation with children should be businesslike, thorough, and the teacher’s interest in what the child says and does should be “seriously interested.” Children unmistakably react to the teacher’s mood, intonation, and gestures. And if the teacher sincerely, with pleasure “blows on hot pancakes and eats them”, shows how goats butt, the child not only becomes infected with the desire to do the same, but strives to do it very well, with good humor. In turn, a successful answer, a well-executed action increases the baby’s joy and his desire to repeatedly reproduce what he saw and heard. All this ensures the children’s performance and their contact with the teacher. In addition, there are several other factors that increase the effectiveness of training. • Alternation of various teaching methods and, above all, explanations, instructions and demonstrations (model, method of action) with game tasks. Let's give an example. The teacher tells the children: “Aw-aw-aw - the dog barks. “How does she bark?” After the children pronounce the onomatopoeia, the teacher continues: “Now we will play wind-up dogs. The dog that I turn on with the key (makes an imitation movement) should bark: aw-aw-aw.” • Combination of children's choral responses with individual ones. Typically one choral response is combined with 3-4 or more individual responses. This significantly increases the density of the lesson, helps to involve all children in the work, and also to find out which of the kids has not mastered the skill being mastered in order to further explain or show something (in class). • Using a variety of demonstration materials (objects, toys, pictures, tabletop theater figures, etc.). Looking at them maintains children's attention, increases speech activity, and develops the ability to generalize. • Using tasks aimed at giving children the opportunity to change their position and move around (for example, approach the teacher to look at something with him; look under the chairs to find where the little kitty hid; depict little goats butting, pecking chicken grains, etc.). In some cases, these tasks simultaneously pursue the goal of teaching children the ability to accept an imaginary situation: bake pancakes, catch a snowflake and blow it away. When performing such tasks, children learn the play actions necessary to develop independent role-playing games, the appearance of which in the third year of a child’s life indicates a new stage in his development.

Let us give examples of lesson notes (for more detailed recommendations, see the book: Gerbova V.V. Classes on speech development in the first junior group of kindergarten. - M.: Mozaika-Sintez, 2007).

Game “Who is good with us, who is handsome with us”

This game can be played both outdoors and indoors.

Target. To arouse in children sympathy for their peers, to help them remember the names of their comrades (including those pronounced by adults in different ways (but without babying): Asha - Sashenka - Sashulya), to overcome shyness.

Progress of the game

The teacher seats the children on chairs. Using the text of a Russian folk song, he says: Who is good with us? Who is our handsome one? (The teacher takes the child out and hugs him). Vanechka is good (Olechka is good), Vanechka is handsome (Olechka is beautiful). “Vanyusha is fair-haired, with dark eyes, handsome, strong and not a crybaby,” says the teacher. (“Olenka is pretty, cheerful, loves her doll Masha, sings songs to her. Will you sing to the children? I’ll help you if necessary...” “Dima is good, Dima is handsome. Strong, he doesn’t fight. He knows how to build high towers...”) Praising 5–6 children, the teacher invites all the kids to join him. He asks to take on a partner of his own age, whom the child especially likes. The teacher offers the paired children a hug. The teacher takes turns hugging the children who were unable (did not want) to find a partner. “My children are wonderful,” the teacher concludes his conversation with the kids, “beautiful, smart, kind, cheerful. I love you all". This game is played several times throughout the year.

Lesson “Reading the story by L. N. Tolstoy “Petya and Misha had a horse”

Target. To improve children's ability to listen to a story without visual accompaniment.

Progress of the lesson

The teacher tells the children about two brothers - Petya and Misha, for whom their mother bought a toy horse. “How do you imagine this horse?” – the teacher is interested and listens to the children’s answers. “And then one day,” the teacher continues the conversation, “the children quarreled and began to snatch the horse from each other. How do you think this story ends?” The teacher reads the story 3 times. Then the teacher asks: “Did mom do the right thing by taking the horse from the fighters? How can two people play with the same toy? Listens and corrects children's answers.

Lesson “Examining the subject painting “Near the Big Stump”

Target. Teach children to understand what is shown in the picture; comprehend the relationships between the characters by answering the teacher’s questions; promote speech activation.

Progress of the lesson

The teacher invites the children to tell what (who) is drawn (drawn) in the painting “Near the Big Stump.” The teacher approves of the children’s remarks and complements them. Then he briefly, slowly, talks about the picture: “Every day the Kid goes for a walk to the Big Stump. They are waiting for the Baby there, he is welcome. He talks to everyone who lives near the Big Stump.” The teacher clarifies: “Who lives near the Big Stump?” (Titmouse, squirrel, frog, bee, snail.) “Show,” the teacher continues the conversation, “how the Kid raised his hand, greeting his little friends and Big Stump. “Hello, frog,” shouts the Kid. And she responded... (kva-kva-kva). - Good morning, tit birds! - And they: “Chiv-chiv, chiv-chiv!” We are waiting for you, we are waiting for you!“ The bee buzzed... the squirrel clicked... Big Stump began to smile. Do you see his kind eyes? Only the snail continues to sleep, did not see anything, did not hear anything. Then, when I invite you to come closer to look at the picture, I advise you to wake her up. How will you do this? What do you tell the snail? What if it’s not a snail, but a hedgehog hiding its head? Then be careful, don’t inject yourself!” The teacher, praising the children for helping him look at the picture, offers to listen to a story about the Kid and his friends living near the Big Stump: “Every day the Kid goes for a walk to the kind Big Stump. Little friends are waiting for him there. “He’s coming, he’s coming, chiv-chiv, he’s coming!” - the tit birds rejoice. “Kwa-kwa-kwa!” Good morning, Baby!“ - the green frog greets him. “W-w-w,” the bee buzzes. “Today is a wonderful day, Baby.” "Good morning! Good morning, my dear beloved Big Stump! - Baby shouts. – Good morning, my wonderful little friends. Shall we play?’” The teacher repeats the story, giving the children the opportunity to finish the highlighted words. The teacher invites the children to come closer to the picture and look at it. He draws the kids’ attention to how beautiful it is around the Big Stump, how many flowers and berries there are; listens to children's remarks and reasoning.

Lesson “Didactic exercise “Whose mother? Whose baby?

Target. Teach children to correctly name domestic animals and their babies; guess the animal from the description.

Progress of the lesson

The teacher displays pictures on a flannelgraph depicting an adult animal and a baby (you can use the visual aid “Pets” from the series “The World in Pictures” (M.: Mozaika-Sintez, 2005) or the page “Pets” from the workbook “Speech Development in kids: Junior group" (M.: Mozaika-Sintez, 2006)). Having found out from the children who is drawn in the pictures, the teacher asks who likes which cub. The teacher asks the children which animals have horns (mane, thin tail with a tassel at the end, fluffy tail, which one has the longest tail). He asks how a foal calls a horse, a lamb calls a sheep, a puppy calls a dog. He is interested in who has fluffy soft fur and who has smooth fur.

Concluding the lesson, the teacher invites the children to portray a kitten (or puppy) that catches its own tail, rejoices, meows (yelps).

Lesson “Looking at illustrations for the fairy tale “The Three Bears.” Didactic game “Whose picture”

Target. Give children the opportunity to see that looking at pictures in books is interesting and useful (they can learn a lot of new things); continue to learn how to coordinate words in sentences. Preliminary work. The day before class, the teacher places illustrated editions of the fairy tale “The Three Bears” in the book corner (among them there must be books with drawings by Yu. Vasnetsov). During the day, the teacher invites children to independently examine the drawings and asks who particularly liked which drawing.

Progress of the lesson

The teacher shows the children books and briefly, but vividly and emotionally tells them who liked which drawing. He praises the kids for carefully looking at the pictures and noticing a lot of interesting things. Then the teacher describes the picture that he liked the most, or the one that the children ignored. Next, the teacher invites the children to play. On the teacher’s table there are object pictures (or a set of small objects according to the number of children). Among the items there are the same name, but different in color. Children choose one picture at a time and name them. The kids close their eyes, and the teacher takes pictures from 4-5 children. Children open their eyes. The teacher shows the picture and asks whose object it is. He gives it back only after he receives a complete answer. (This is my little red bucket. These are my silver bells.) When the children get their pictures back, the teacher invites them to exchange cards and repeats the game. At the end of the lesson, based on the characteristics of the visual material, the teacher asks the kids to bring pictures that depict “what is growing”; “animals in fur coats”, “those with beaks”, etc. are drawn.

Gerbova Valentina Viktorovna – Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, author of methodological manuals on the development of speech of preschool children and introducing them to fiction.

Review: V.V. Gerbova, magazine “Modern Preschool Education”

Speech development tools

Notes on speech development

Speech development tools in the first junior group include toys, pictures, books, didactic games and exercises, and finger gymnastics. Any interesting and safe toy is suitable for speech development, but it is much more convenient and effective to have pre-prepared sets. For example, a didactic doll. This is an ordinary doll, but it comes with sets of clothes for different seasons, toy dishes, bathroom accessories, household items, etc. The toys also include puppet theater characters.

Pictures are divided into subject and plot. The first depict objects or objects of nature, the second - any events (children playing in the sandbox, a driver driving a truck, etc.). There are also pictures depicting people and animals.

At this age, for the development of speech, the works of A. Barto, E. Blaginina, Z. Alexandrova, other children's prose writers and poets, and small forms of children's folklore are used.

Didactic is a game organized by a teacher for the purpose of teaching children. Speech exercises are also aimed at learning, but they do not contain all the components of the game (game task, plot, rules). During finger gymnastics, students recite the text of a short poem or nursery rhyme and perform movements with their hands. The effect is that in the brain speech and motor areas are located nearby, so an impact on one of them activates the other.

Let us give examples of finger gymnastics, didactic games and exercises for speech development in the first junior group.

1. Fingers form a pinch, as if it were a brush. The child moves his hand up and down, saying: “I will paint the chair and the table, and the cat Masha with a soft brush.”

2. “Let’s lick the jam from our lips.” The teacher invites the students to imagine that they have jam on their lips, and they need to lick it off. Children make characteristic movements with their tongue. The exercise helps to increase the mobility of the tongue, therefore, clearer articulation.

3. “Who’s behind the tree?” The teacher shows a picture in which animals are hiding behind a Christmas tree, only the tails of the animals are visible. Children determine who is hiding.

4. “Fox, dance.” The kids ask the toy fox to dance. If the form of the verb is used incorrectly, then the character refuses to perform the action, and another child formulates the request. The fox dances, and the children use their voices to imitate the sound of musical instruments.

Features of speech development of children of the first junior group

Ekaterina Vladimirovna Kucherenko

Features of speech development of children of the first junior group

In the speech development of a young child, the main thing is to stimulate his active speech. This is achieved by enriching the vocabulary, intensive work to improve the articulatory apparatus, as well as expanding the area of ​​communication with adults.

The main form of the pedagogical process in kindergarten is GCD (in this case, speech development )

.
Here the knowledge of children , which they acquired through practical means or received by acting with objects in their immediate environment, is concretized and clarified.
What activities can ensure the development of a child’s active speech?

First of all, the joint activity of an adult with a child, during which emotional contact and business cooperation are established. It is important for the teacher to organize joint actions so that he can call the child for verbal interaction or find lively, accessible reasons for the child to communicate. In the process of joint activity, the teacher does not set tasks for direct speech teaching. The setting of problematic language tasks here is situational in nature: the child says only what he wants to say, and not what the teacher planned. Therefore, the organization and planning of joint activities must be flexible. The teacher must be prepared for improvisation and for the child’s counter activity. In the process of joint activity, the child gradually develops the position of a junior partner , guided by an adult and constantly taking into account the latter’s initiative.

So, what forms of joint activity between a teacher and children on development can be identified at an early age? To answer this question, we should remember some features of young children :

• it is difficult for them to concentrate on monotonous activities that are unattractive to them, while during the game they can remain attentive for quite a long time;

• their attention is aroused by externally attractive objects, events and remains as long as interest remains;

• their behavior is situational and almost always consists of impulsive actions;

• they are characterized by imitation and easy suggestibility;

• they have a predominance of visual-emotional memory and visual-effective thinking[1].

The teacher must remember that when solving problems of speech development of young children, the activities that he organizes should be:

- event-based (associated with any event from personal experience)

and rhythmic
(motor and mental activity must alternate)
;

—procedural (young children have a great need to develop skills in everyday processes: they like the process of washing, dressing, eating, etc. To develop the child’s active speech, the teacher needs to accompany the child’s actions with words and encourage him to pronounce them).

In our work on the development of speech in young children, we use the following forms of joint activities:

- observation and basic work in nature;

— scenarios of activating communication;

— conversation with oneself, parallel conversation;

— fun games and round dance games to develop communication ;

- listening to fiction using colorful pictures;

— staging and elementary dramatization of literary works;

— games to develop fine motor skills ;

— didactic games and exercises;

- everyday and gaming situations;

- basic experimentation;

— means of oral folk art [4].

Of course, it is impossible to show all forms of joint activities in one day, so we will talk about those that, in our opinion, are the most interesting and effective.

Play is the leading type of activity at an early age, creating the most favorable conditions for the mental and personal development of a child , since in the process of play he himself strives to learn what he does not yet know how to do. The game, meeting the natural needs of the child, contributes to the normal development of his cognitive processes: perception, thinking, speech, memory, imagination.

Learn while playing! This idea has always fascinated many teachers and educators. In order for young children to master the necessary movements, speech, and various skills, they must be taught this. It is necessary to develop speech in children as the main means of communication with others. Speech communication between a child and adults is preceded by emotional communication. It is in emotional communication that the foundations of future speech and future communication are laid with the help of meaningfully pronounced and understood words.

The living environment in which a child is raised and the attitude of an adult towards him are of great importance for the development It is adults who play the leading role in the child’s speech development : the teacher in kindergarten, parents and loved ones in the family. The speech culture of adults, how they speak to the child, and how much attention they pay to verbal communication with him , largely determine the success of a preschooler in language acquisition.

Didactic games were created for learning through play. We conduct them with toys, objects, pictures and on a verbal basis (verbal)

.Game activities allow you to activate the child’s existing vocabulary: the child finds himself in a situation where he is forced to use previously acquired knowledge and vocabulary in new conditions.

Playing educational games with toys and objects with children, such as “Doll Masha woke up”

,
“Toy Store”
, we help our students consolidate their knowledge of the names of clothes and tableware, activating and enriching their speech.

Using printed board games “Paired Pictures”

,
“Loto”,
etc., we form
children’s , consolidate their knowledge about plants, animals and their babies , vegetables and fruits. Thus, in the process of accumulating nouns, generalizing concepts (clothing, dishes, furniture, toys, animals)
children’s .

By manipulating with toys during the game, we designate actions: walking, sleeping, eating, etc., i.e. we teach children to use verbs. Using games "More - Less"

,
“Wonderful Bag”
we develop children’s ability
to see the features of objects and highlight their characteristic features and qualities, consolidating knowledge about color and size, enriching children’s vocabulary with adjectives.
When working with young children, we consider the combination of visuals and words to be effective. Bright objects and pictures make the baby want to look at them. The child learns verbal designations of objects and phenomena of reality, their properties, connections and relationships. To enrich and activate children’s vocabulary we use “Wonderful Bag”

,
“Guess what it sounds like
.
children’s vocabulary with the help of didactic games “Guess and name”
,
“Guess who came to us”
,
“Who is doing what”
,
“Name the animals and tell me who screams what”
.
Thus, didactic games are educational games that help clarify and enrich the vocabulary of young children and activate their speech.
Creating an emotionally favorable situation helps to arouse in the child a desire to actively participate in verbal communication . And it is theatrical play that can create situations in which even the most uncommunicative and constrained children enter into dialogue and open up.

Consequently, theatrical play, having a great influence on the child’s speech development , stimulates his active speech by expanding his vocabulary and improving his articulatory apparatus.

In theatrical play, didactic, emotionally rich speech is formed. Children better assimilate the content of the work, the logic and sequence of events, their development and causality. Theatrical games promote the assimilation of elements of verbal communication (facial expressions, gestures, posture, intonation, voice modulation)

.

Of a special nature is the game that children create themselves, reproducing in it what is close and interesting to them (the actions of people with household objects, labor processes, people’s attitude towards each other, their recreation, entertainment, etc. ). Of course, in such games the theme, content and sequence of the displayed events are not determined in advance by adults, but are based on the life experience of children ; the rules are, as it were, hidden in the content of the events displayed. Such games are called creative, role-playing games.

The first joint games instill in children a sense of collectivism and friendship. Kids learn to communicate, make requests and proposals to their comrades. With the timely formation of a plot game, children of the third year of life begin to play together, sometimes in threes, entering into role-playing interaction. In games like Barbershop

,
“At a doctor’s appointment
,” we introduce children to the names of professions, teach them to take on a role, perform appropriate actions
(cutting, combing hair, treating, giving injections, etc.)
.
Initially, children imitate what you show them, then they begin to independently organize the game, enter into dialogue, and transfer actions from one object to another. During the games, we encourage children to name the objects they use and pronounce the actions they perform.
Games are often accompanied by poems and songs. The poetic text determines the course of the game, regulates the motor activity of children and their behavior. Kids listen to the words of the text and focus on the content. Poetic syllables set the rhythm of movement. Movements with speech accompaniment cultivate a sense of beauty, the ability to listen to every word of the teacher, and activate attention. When the game is repeated, the kids remember the words and begin to sing along.

When conducting outdoor games with text, we use appropriate attributes (pictures with game characters, we encourage them to repeat the text. We also involve shy children , who reveal their capabilities in the game, they develop speech , they learn to communicate with others. In outdoor games In order for the child to accept the plot, we characterize the depicted image, the toys must speak, thus creating a true play situation.

A developing subject-spatial environment promotes not only the creative , but also the speech development of children based on play activities. This environment provides playful activities and is also designed to help establish effective communication between children and the teacher and with each other. The equipment is located so that children can freely use it without resorting to the help of an adult, so that with its help the child can easily get involved in a play situation at any time.

Gaming activity creates that positive emotional background against which all mental processes occur most actively. In addition, gaming activities reveal the individual abilities and personal qualities of the child, and allow us to determine the level of his knowledge and ideas, which is necessary for the further effective work of the teacher with each child.

We also work among parents to introduce children In the corner for parents we display a folder with games, where we inform the goal and progress of the game. The formation of children's interests was noticeably influenced by the positive attitude of parents towards games, towards the children's enthusiasm for outdoor games and exercises. Parents listen to our consultations and often seek advice themselves. Such dialogue between educators and parents promotes confidential communication between parents and children.

Work systematically carried out in kindergarten and reinforced at home gives positive results. It can already be noted that children are more willing to play together and can agree on the use of toys. The teacher’s participation in the game is now quite natural.

In conclusion, it should be noted that we constantly work with children of primary preschool age and at the end of the school year we present our results to the teachers of the older groups to whom our pupils move.

Literature

1. Arushanova, A. G. Forms of joint activities of a teacher with children on development at an early age [Electronic resource]. —

Access mode: https://moi-detsad.ru/konsultac13.htm#_ftnref1

2. Arushanova, A. G. Speech and verbal communication of children : a book for kindergarten teachers. - M.: Mosaika-Sintez, 1999. - 272 p.

3. Karpukhina, N. A. Lesson notes for the of kindergarten, a practical guide for educators and methodologists of preschool educational institutions. - Voronezh, 2007. - 207 p.

4. Kolycheva, T. I. Speech development of young children in the classroom and in everyday life [Electronic resource]. —Access mode: https://ivalex.vistcom.ru/konsultac146.htm

Methods and techniques for speech development

The main method of speech development at this age is conversation. Encouraging children to talk, the teacher asks reproductive (“who is this?”, “What is this?”) and search questions (“why are there puddles on the street?”, “Why wear a hat?”), stimulates contact with peers and adults (“ask at Masha’s, will she play with us?”

The next method is storytelling. The teacher's stories should be short in volume, interesting and meaningful. For example: “Guys, look at what a beautiful doll I have. Her name is Katya. Katya has soft, fluffy hair, brown eyes, a white blouse with buttons and a colorful sundress.”

Fiction also contributes to the speech development of children. The teacher reads poems and nursery rhymes by heart and retells short fairy tales. If the work is familiar to children, then you can use the technique of negotiation. The teacher begins the phrase, and the students finish:

Our Tanya loudly... (cries)

Dropped it into the river... (ball).

Speech development in the garden

Since babies do not yet know how to think abstractly, preschool speech development is a combination of verbal methods with visual ones: demonstration of toys, small pictures, book illustrations, puppet and shadow theater scenes.

Practical methods are the organization of didactic games and exercises discussed above.

Planning work on speech development

Speech development in preschool educational institutions is carried out on the basis of a long-term plan, which is drawn up by the teacher in accordance with the kindergarten education program or other program document. The long-term plan is drawn up in the form of a list or table. The name of the month, topic and program content of the lesson are indicated. An example of a long-term plan is shown in Table 1.

Speech development in preschool educational institutions

Table 1. Long-term work plan for October

Lesson topicProgram content
1A cat came to us To consolidate ideas about a toy, expand the active vocabulary in the field of onomatopoeic words (“meow”, “bang”), nouns (“kitty”, “cat”, “ears”, “tail”), adjectives (“smooth”, “fluffy” ), verbs (“go”, “give”). Develop attention and thinking. Cultivate responsiveness and kindness.
2For a walk in the autumn forest Form ideas about the autumn forest, expand the active vocabulary in the field of nouns (“autumn”, “forest”, “tree”, “leaves”), adjectives (“yellow”, “red”), verbs (“turn yellow”, “fall” ), prepositions (“with”, “on”). Develop attention, perception, thinking. Cultivate curiosity.
3

Based on the long-term plan, a summary of speech development is drawn up. In addition to the topic and program content of the lesson, the notes indicate the material used (toys, pictures, etc.), describe the preliminary work (if carried out), describe in detail the remarks and actions of the teacher, and the expected answers of the children. A summary is also a kind of plan. Speech development occurs systematically. Young specialists write detailed plans and notes, but an experienced teacher needs a long-term plan.

Summary of a lesson on speech development for the first junior group “The bunny came to visit us”

Summary of a lesson on speech development for the first junior group “The bunny came to visit us”

Objectives:
OO “Speech Development”:
- teach to pronounce the sound “ay” clearly and for a long time.
— activate children’s speech, encouraging them to answer questions. OO “Cognitive Development”:
- continue to teach the difference between red and green colors.
— to cultivate interest in understanding the world around us OO “Physical Development”:
— to form the expressiveness of movements, the development of coordination of movements.
Methods:
Visual, game.
Equipment:
toys
(hare, cabbage, carrots)
Lesson progress

Greeting "Everyone clapped their hands"

Everyone clapped their hands, together, more fun!
Our feet started pounding, louder and faster! We'll hit you on the knees. Hush, hush, hush. We raise our hands, our hands, higher, higher, higher! Our hands began to spin. They went down again. They circled, circled and stopped. Educator:
Guys, a guest came to us today.
Do you want to know who it is? (Yes)
Then guess the riddle.
Riddle
He has big ears, Shorty - a round tail.
He loves to eat cabbage. Who is this? Here's the question! (Hare) Educator:
Well done, you guessed it correctly, it’s a hare.
(The teacher shows a toy - a hare.)
Guys, what kind of bunny?
(Gray, Soft, Fluffy)
Let's say hello to him.
(The children say hello to the bunny. He greets the children. The children look at the hare.)
The bunny is a runner, what's in your bag?
Can I have a look? What is this? (Carrot)
What carrot?
(Red)
And this?
(Cabbage)
What kind of cabbage?
(Green)
Correct.
Guys, is the bunny asking you and me for help? Shall we help the bunny pickle cabbage for the winter? Children's answers (Yes) Finger gymnastics “Pickling cabbage”
We chop and chop the cabbage.
(Use your hands to show how we chop the cabbage)
- We chop three or three carrots.
(Use your hands to show how we rub the carrots)
We salt and salt the cabbage.
(Add a pinch of salt to our fingers)
We mash the cabbage.
(Crush the cabbage with your hands) Didactic game “Let's teach the bunny to speak correctly” Goal:
To develop intonation expressiveness.
Educator:
The bunny brought a wonderful bag with him.
It contains different pictures. The bunny will talk. What is written on them? If he says it wrong, you will teach him to say it correctly. Ishka – children correct “bear” Herringbone – squirrel Onik – elephant After “training” the bunny begins to name all the objects correctly. Game situation “Walk through the autumn forest” Teacher:
“Guys, the bunny invites us to walk through the forest with big and small legs.”
Big feet walked along the road - TOP, TOP, TOP, (children walk with big steps)
Small legs ran along the path - stomp, stomp, stomp
(children run on their toes)
Oh, guys, where did our bunny run?
Let's look for him? Let's all call him together! Au Au Au Au Au Au Au Bunny! - Well done, kids, we found a bunny. The bunny thanks you for your help and invites you to play with him. Outdoor game “The little gray bunny is sitting”
- Guys, did we help the bunny?
(Yes)
.
- How did we help the bunny? (children's answers)
.
- And the bunny has prepared gifts for you (medals, treats)
. - Let's say goodbye to the bunny. Let's tell him goodbye. And let's go back to kindergarten. Along a level path, along a level path, We walked, we walked, we walked We arrived at the kindergarten.

Recommendations for parents on speech development in children

For the development of speech in the first junior group to be successful, the efforts of the teacher are not enough. Much depends on the parents and close relatives of the child. Teachers advise mothers and fathers to talk with their children more often, discuss various questions (“why does a flower grow?”, “what color is the sky?”, “what should we feed the cat?”, etc.).

Speech development plan

An adult's speech should be clear and moderately loud. You cannot copy a child’s statements or pronounce words the way a child does.

With the help of parents, you can perform puppet shows based on the plots of familiar works, and memorize short poems. The teacher places a list of books and texts of poems in the parent's corner.

You should be attentive to children's issues. If you can’t immediately satisfy the baby’s curiosity, then you can give the answer later, look for the necessary information in books.

You need to treat the child’s speech very carefully, follow the teacher’s recommendations, and, if necessary, contact a speech therapist.

“Speech development in the first junior group” article on speech development (junior group)

“Speech development in the first junior group”

Speech development in the first junior group

Author: Pukhova Irina Evgenievna

In kindergarten, the education and training program indicates all the tasks for speech development in each age group. This task is given serious attention in kindergarten. What are the tasks in the first junior group for speech development? This:

1. Developmental speech environment.

2. Formation of a dictionary.

3. Sound culture of speech.

4. The grammatical structure of speech.

5. Coherent speech.

The successful implementation of all these tasks depends, first of all, on the way of life of the group, the atmosphere in which the child is raised, and on a specially designed, thoughtful environment.

Children of the third year of life really need communication. They listen carefully to the explanations of adults, and often begin to turn to them with questions: “How?”, “What is this?”, “Why?”, “Where?”. Children receive new experiences, which is a necessary condition for their mental development.

Speech development is one of the most important areas of work, which ensures the modern psychological development of a child in his third year of life. As has already been said, one of the tasks of speech development is a developing speech environment, that is, creating conditions for children under which they will feel comfortable communicating with each other or verbally addressing adults. The child’s passive and active vocabulary should also be verbally enriched; the teacher should use nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and prepositions in his speech. To do this you need the following:

1. Listen to the child carefully and interestedly.

2. Involve children in conversation.

3. Talk a lot yourself.

4. Help them make verbal contact with adults and relatives.

At the beginning of the adaptation period, when planning, I carefully select materials on speech development. We repeat works familiar to children. Children's speech improves quickly under the guidance of adults. While observing on walks, while looking at plants in the beds, while playing with objects (hoops, balls, spatulas) and examining them, I teach children to do something together, to hear the teacher, and, of course, develop speech. Traveling around the territory of the kindergarten, in a group, helps a lot, children listen carefully and understand the teacher’s words, willingly carry out instructions (bring something, say something). Also, during the adaptation period, a very interesting game takes place: “Who is good and who is handsome?” I do this both on a walk and in a group. Children really like her. They enjoy continuing to play this game throughout the year.

The process of vocabulary formation is ongoing: during observations of cultural and hygienic skills (towel, hanger, sink, handkerchief, while looking at albums, “Pets”, “Transport”, “Dishes”, “Vegetables”, “Shoes”, “Clothes”, “Fruits”... during board games.

It is advisable to encourage children to use words in independent speech. When playing the game “Loto for Little Ones” (vegetables and fruits), I give a sample answer to the question. The teacher asks: “Who has carrots?”, and the child answers: “I have carrots.” By the end of the school year, many children can independently act as a leader.

Vocabulary work is an integral part of GCD for speech development. In my work I use techniques such as:

1. Show a picture with a title.

2. Repeated repetition of a new word or phrase.

3. Explanation of the origin of the word (runaway bunny, little mouse).

4. Adults use a new word in combination with familiar words. (Pecks. The chicken pecks. She has a beak. And the chickens have a beak. And the chickens peck. They peck at the grains. The chicken pecks quickly, and the chickens try to peck quickly.)

Techniques for activating the dictionary include the following:

1. Questions. I ask the children simple questions: “Who, what? ”, and in a more complex form “What are you wearing? ", "What's your luck? "

2. Didactic games, exercises suggesting the use of words related to different parts of speech. For example: d.u. "Up down". The doll climbs the ladder: “up - up - up. Difficult". And the doll goes down: “Down - down - jump down. Easily! “In the future, this exercise is repeated while walking. Children go up and down the stairs, pronouncing their words.

The vocal apparatus, which is still very fragile in children of this age, is of no small importance in educating the sound culture of speech. Children do not know how to regulate their vocal apparatus at all. Children are given tasks in which the same sounds or sound combinations must be pronounced at different volumes. “How does the dog bark? “Woof - woof” - loudly. How does a puppy bark? “The children say quietly: “woof - woof.” How does a cat meow? Like a kitten...” While developing the vocal apparatus, we must remember the need for an individual approach and praise even the child’s minor successes. From the age of two, it is necessary to teach a child to use a moderate rate of speech. This, of course, is the teacher’s personal example: “Repeat like me.”

Don't forget about speech breathing. It ensures the correct pronunciation of sounds and phrases. I carry out exercises such as “Breeze” (we blow on the plumes, snowflakes). The distance from the plumes to the child’s lips should be about 8 – 10 cm. In my work I also use such exercises as “Sing a long song - y - y - y together” or same as “How Mashenka screamed loudly au - au - au.”

In the younger group there are children who speak poorly or do not speak at all. I pay special attention to them, communicate more with them, purposefully enrich their passive reserve. When talking to a child, I make sure to monitor the pace of speech. From this age I try to teach children to use a moderate speech rate. Changing the tempo of speech is an integral part of its intonation expressiveness.

By the end of the year, children in our group can carry out simple verbal instructions, perceive simple stories without the use of visual aids (pictures, etc.); begin to understand short stories about events that did not take place in their personal experience. They have a well-developed ability to imitate, expressed in the ability to repeat movements, actions, words and simple phrases after an adult. Children readily respond to my offers to read, listen to a story or fairy tale, and look at the pictures in a book together.

Naturally, the full development of the speech of younger preschoolers is impossible without targeted pedagogical work outside of class. This work involves a variety of games for repetition and consolidation of program content: outdoor games with texts, round dances, board-printed and didactic games, dramatization games and others. I spend them with a small number of children (3-6 people) at any time of the day.

I try to read familiar or new works of fiction to children every day (Anthology for preschoolers 1-3 years old / compiled by N. P. Ilchuk, V. V. Gerbova, L. N. Eliseeva, N. B. Baburova - M., 1996 , 1997, 1998), as well as any other anthologies and books addressed to children of primary preschool age. Numerous collections of literature contain works that will make communication with children at one time or another in the daily routine more meaningful: when washing, eating, while playing, when preparing for bed, on a walk, as well as humorous poems. For example, “Admonition” by S. Marshak: “Don’t sit on nettles; if you sit, don’t be angry.”

During a walk, children show how big legs walk (to-o-o-p, to-o-o-p) and little legs run (to-o-o-p, to-o-o-p) to the text of the corresponding nursery rhyme. The nursery rhyme “Okay, okay...” helps me start a conversation with the kids about how they spent their weekends or holidays, which of them visited grandma, how grandma greeted them, what she treated them to.

Working with children in younger groups, I came to the conclusion that not all children perceive the teacher’s speech in the same way. Each child has his own characteristics of speech development and his own shortcomings. Children are still very withdrawn and reluctant to communicate, and not with all adults. Many people still find it difficult to accompany their actions with words, for example: draw and talk about what is drawn. Complex sentences practically do not exist yet. Children do not always perceive a story without illustrations, without showing objects. Therefore, for the successful development of children, I use pictures, a flannelgraph, as well as a magnetic board and thematic sets of magnets. It is very convenient and helps both in class and in everyday life. At the same time, familiar words and actions seem to come to life, which contributes to better assimilation of a particular work. The child can manipulate the characters himself.

Theatrical play, as one of its types, is an effective means of socializing preschool children in the process of understanding the moral implications of a literary or folklore work and participating in a game that is collective in nature, which creates favorable conditions for developing a sense of partnership and mastering ways of positive interaction. In theatrical play, emotional development is carried out: children get acquainted with the feelings and mood of the characters, master the ways of their external expression, and understand the reasons for this or that mood. Theatrical play is also of great importance for speech development (improving dialogues, mastering the expressiveness of speech). Finally, theatrical play is a means of self-expression and self-realization for the child.

In dramatization games, the child, playing a role as an “artist,” independently creates an image with the help of verbal and non-verbal expressiveness. Types of dramatization are games - imitations of images of animals, people, literary characters; role-playing dialogues based on text; staging of works; improvisation games with the playing out of a plot (or several plots) without prior preparation. I believe that sensory education and development are of great importance in the development of a child’s speech. The child draws his first ideas about the world around him, the material environment, with the help of various analyzers, while the word consolidates the ideas received through sensory means. For children, words are indeed the “second originals of reality”, the first being the images of the world around them, that is, language develops in a visually effective way. For a child to understand a name, he must see the object with which it is associated.

Sensory and speech development occur in close unity, therefore, the work on speech development cannot be separated from the work on the development of the senses and perception. The formation of speech is inextricably linked with the comprehension of things, and vice versa, the reality surrounding the child is an inexhaustible source that should be used to enrich the language.

By becoming familiar with color, shape and size, the child enriches his vocabulary, sound analysis of speech, ear for music, and so on. To do this, I make manuals that help the child better navigate and understand objects. For example, the game “What color”. I give children pictures depicting various objects, fruits, vegetables (green - cucumber, red - flag, red - strawberry, yellow - lemon, and so on). Then I show a square of some color and the children who have an object of that color raise their pictures. So, we get acquainted with color and reinforce the names of objects and enrich the children’s vocabulary.

The painstaking work to develop the speech of my students over three years has yielded positive results. In conclusion, I would like to say that our common goal is to raise a comprehensively developed healthy child. Currently, all over the world attention is drawn to preschool childhood. Numerous studies indicate that preschool age is the period of the most intense physical and spiritual development of the human individual, and the future of the child largely depends on what pedagogical and hygienic conditions are created for this early development, how physically strong and healthy he will be .

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