Development of independence and initiative of preschool children in the context of the implementation of the Federal State Educational Standard. consultation

1. Eastern administrative district, GBOU gymnasium No. 1476.

Topics of speeches:

  1. “Development and support of children's initiative in various types of activities, interaction of a preschool organization with the family” - presentation of senior teacher Kharitonova N.V.
  2. “Development of children's initiative and independence of children in different cultural practices”:

— “Cartoon for kids” – teacher A.A. Molchanova;

— “Types of minerals (stones)” – teacher Gorokhova E.A.;

- “The Magic Box” - teacher Rozanova A.A.

3. “Joint partnership activities between an adult and a child. Project “Water Sorceress” - presentation by teacher Pluzhnikova O.B.

The event materials can be found at

2. Eastern administrative district, GBOU secondary school No. 1852.

Topics of speeches:

  1. Presentation by senior teacher Spesivtseva N.N. “Development of children's initiative through expansion of developmental space for children's free activity.”
  2. Presentation of the work experience of a teacher at State Budgetary Educational Institution Secondary School No. 1852, preschool department, Kotelevets L.V. "Supporting children's initiative in verbal communication through the use of TRIZ technology."
  3. Presentation of the work experience of a teacher at State Budgetary Educational Institution Secondary School No. 1852, preschool department, N.V. Tonkonogovoy. “Creating a subject-developing environment as a condition for supporting children’s initiative.”

The event materials can be found at

3. Eastern Administrative District, State Budgetary Educational Institution “School with in-depth study of the English language No. 1352”

Topics of speeches:

  1. “Educational activity with children 3–4 years old “How we helped Mishka” - teacher Svetlana Dmitrievna Ugolnikova.

2. “Educational activities with children 4–5 years old “Letter from the scientist Filin” - teacher Galina Vasilievna Krisanova.

3. “Educational activities with children 5–6 years old “Travel to Tsifrograd” - teacher Tatyana Petrovna Kutlovskaya.

4. “Educational activities with children 6–7 years old “Miracles from a casket” - teacher Tatyana Nikolaevna Belyaeva.

5. Federal State Educational Standards DO. Development of children's initiative in different types of activities. Presentation by methodologist Tatyana Vladimirovna Krivoruchko.

The event materials can be found at

4. Eastern Administrative District, State Budget Educational Institution Gymnasium No. 1512.

Topics of speeches:

  1. “Development of children's initiative in various types of activities” - presentation by senior teacher A.A. Lykova.
  2. “Techniques and ways to support children’s initiative” – educational psychologist E.V. Kovalchuk.
  3. “Staging based on the Russian folk tale “The Cat and the Fox” - teacher L.N. Pavlukhina, music director G.V. Nesterova.
  4. “Forms of supporting children’s initiative in sensitive moments and independent activities of children.” Practical experience of teachers: music director O.V. Kolyabina, speech therapist V.A. Muravyova, teacher T.V. Tolstykh.

The event materials can be found at

5. Western Administrative District, State Budget Educational Institution Gymnasium No. 1596.

Topics of speeches:

  1. “Open event (within the framework of project activities) on life safety “Letter from Prostokvashino” - teachers of the senior group Ershova Elena Vladimirovna, Fedorova Victoria Andreevna.
  2. “Dominant lesson on children's creativity “Playing a fairy tale” (based on the musical cycle by S.M. Maikapar “Spillkins”)” - music director of the highest category Shamidanova Lidiya Veniaminovna, teacher of the preparatory group Mikheeva Lyubov Nikolaevna.
  3. Presentation “Federal State Educational Standard. Development of children's initiative. Working with children of senior preschool age to create a fairy tale” - senior teacher of GBOU Gymnasium No. 1596, SPDO No. 1755 Svetlana Alekseevna Kotova, preparatory group teacher Valentina Nikolaevna Poluektova.
  4. Presentation “Federal State Educational Standard. Development of creativity as the highest form of development of initiative” - senior teacher of GBOU Gymnasium No. 1596, SPDO No. 1755 Svetlana Alekseevna Kotova, music director Lidiya Veniaminovna Shamidanova.

The event materials can be found at

6. Western Administrative District, GBOU School No. 37.

Topics of speeches:

  1. “Development of initiative and independence in a preschooler in the process of educational activities: teaching the beginnings of literacy through the organization of a children's theater” - teacher Onoprienko Ekaterina Elitovna.
  2. “Subject-spatial environment as a means of developing children’s initiative and independence in children with disabilities” - educational psychologist at GBOU School No. 1329 Svetlana Yuryevna Kovaleva, teacher-speech therapist at GBOU School No. 1329 Nazari Galina Rafailovna.
  3. “Development of children's initiative and independence in various types of activities” - teachers Marina Anatolyevna Cherminskaya, Ekaterina Olegovna Tihanskaya.
  4. “Modern forms of interaction with the family for the development of children’s initiative” - teacher-psychologist of State Budgetary Educational Institution Secondary School No. 1307 Lunina Nadezhda Aleksandrovna.
  5. “Development of creative initiative in various cultural practices” - educators Elena Viktorovna Degtyareva, Irina Aleksandrovna Zavarzina.

The event materials can be found at

7. Zelenograd administrative district, State Budget Educational Institution Gymnasium No. 1528.

Topics of speeches:

  1. “Federal state educational standard for preschool education. Development of children's initiative in various types of activities" - senior methodologist Balaeva Nina Mikhailovna, senior teacher Avetisyan Kristina Grachikovna, educational psychologist Galina Guryevna Golubkova. Text and presentation.

8. Northern Administrative District, State Budget Educational Institution Central District No. 1296.

Topics of speeches:

  1. “Development of children's initiative in play activities with children of the second group of early age “A Multi-Colored Fairy Tale”” - teachers of GBOU Central Educational Institution No. 1296 (DO No. 1). Medvedeva Tatyana Nikolaevna, Syatkina Galina Anatolyevna.
  2. “Development of children's initiative in visual arts: using the capabilities of graphic materials in fine arts” - teacher of GBOU Central Educational Institution No. 1296 (Preschool No. 1) Gizhitskaya Irina Alimovna.
  3. “Development of children's initiative in communicative activities: “Travel across continents” (combined preparatory school group)” - teacher of State Budgetary Educational Institution Central Education No. 1296 (Preschool No. 1) Elena Eduardovna Golovina.
  4. “Development of children's initiative in cognitive and research activities “Miracles about four wheels” (senior group)” - teacher of GBOU Central Educational Center No. 1296 (Preschool No. 1) Fadiuri Larisa Vladimirovna, methodologist GBOU Central Educational Center No. 1296 (Preschool No. 1) Serebryakova Tatyana Anatolyevna, teacher Romanova Olga Yurievna.
  5. “Development of children's initiative in communicative activities: development of children's speech using speech exercises (combined senior group)” - teacher of GBOU Central Educational Center No. 1296 (Preschool No. 1) Tatyana Mikhailovna Blinova.
  6. “Development of children's initiative in motor activity: “Such different balls” (preparatory group for school)” - teacher of GBOU Central Educational Institution No. 1296 (Preschool No. 1) Kudinova Elena Valentinovna.
  7. “Development of children's initiative in constructive activities: “Little builders” (junior group)” - teacher of GBOU Central Educational Institution No. 1296 (Preschool No. 3) Tatyana Sergeevna Bakotina.
  8. “Children’s initiative in visual arts: development of children’s initiative in teaching children arts and crafts” - teacher at GBOU School No. 183 (preschool No. 4) Olga Anatolyevna Khrenova.

The event materials can be found at

My kindergarten

Part. Theory.

Today there is not a single country in the world where the special importance of the period of the first years of a person’s life for the formation of his personality in subsequent years is not realized.
The tasks of developing public preschool education are included in the social policy program of many states. The need to prepare children for life and pass on accumulated experience to them arose among humanity in ancient times. This was carried out not only in the natural course of life in the family, in the community, when the elders taught and set an example for the younger ones, introducing them to work and instilling the necessary skills. The problem of developing independence in children has been and remains one of the most pressing in current pedagogy. The volitional qualities of a person are the core side of a person’s character, and serious attention should be paid to their upbringing. A very important volitional quality necessary for a child’s future activities is independence.

Interest in the problem we are studying is currently determined by the humanistic tasks of a more complete disclosure of the individuality of the developing personality. Life in all its manifestations is becoming more diverse and complex; what is required from a person is not stereotyped, habitual actions, but a creative approach to solving large and small problems, the ability to independently pose and solve new problems. The younger the children, the weaker their ability to act independently. They are unable to control themselves, so they imitate others.

Preschool age is a direct continuation of early age in terms of general sensitivity. This is a period of mastering the social space of human relationships through communication with close adults, as well as through play and real relationships with peers. The child strives to realize his “I”, striving to confirm his independence. The child develops the foundations of a responsible attitude towards the results of his actions.

The formation of independence largely depends on the level of development of memory, thinking, development of attention, speech, etc. Thanks to this, the child is able to subordinate his actions to one or another task, achieve a goal, overcoming the difficulties that arise.

For a long time there was an opinion that a child is not yet a person. It noted only what distinguished him from an adult. It turned out that a small child is an inferior being who cannot think independently, act, or have desires that do not coincide with the desires of adults.

The older the child became, the fewer “imperfections” they found in him, but this did not change the essence of the matter. And only recently have we established a “positivist” approach to the development of a child: the child’s right to be an individual has finally been recognized. And independence is a faithful companion to personal development.

What is independence? It would seem that the answer lies on the surface, but we all understand it a little differently.

The most typical answers: – “this is an action that a person carries out himself, without the prompting or help of others”; – the ability to rely only on one’s own strength; – `independence from the opinions of others, freedom of expression of one’s feelings, creativity’; – “the ability to manage oneself, one’s time and one’s life in general”; – “the ability to set tasks that no one has set before you, and solve them yourself.”

It is difficult to argue against these definitions. They accurately indicate a person’s independence and, by and large, the maturity of his personality. But how to apply these assessments to a child, say, 2-3 years old? Almost none of them can be used without significant reservations. Does this mean that those psychologists were right who argued that complete independence is not available to children and therefore it is premature to talk about the child’s personality? Yes and no.

Independence does not mean complete freedom of action and behavior; it is always contained within the strict framework of accepted social norms. In this regard, it is not any action alone, but only meaningful and socially acceptable. It is difficult to call the monotonous, chaotic or aimless actions of children with mental problems independent, although they seem so, although such children play alone, do not pester adults and are not interested in the impression they make on others.

A child's sense of purpose manifests itself in unbridled initiatives: washing clothes like mom, or hammering nails like dad. But at first there is neither skill nor perseverance, and in order for the initiative not to be lost, it is necessary to help. And parents, unfortunately, are reluctant to support “attacks” of children’s independence: they are both burdensome and unsafe. But it is also impossible to abruptly stop or often switch the child’s attention to actions that are more reasonable, in the opinion of adults: this will slow down the development of the child’s emerging independence and throw the child back to primitive imitation.

Only as a last resort, if he has already thought of something out of the ordinary, can he resort to this - otherwise, the initiative must be supported.

If you help your child regularly, his actions will soon reveal the second component of independence - purposefulness, manifested in passion for the task, the desire to get not just any result, but the desired result. The child becomes diligent, persistent, and organized. Failure does not become a reason to abandon your plan, but forces you to redouble your efforts and, if necessary, even seek help. It is very important to help the child in time - this is a necessary condition for the development of his independence. The child will refuse help as soon as he feels that he can cope on his own.

Often a child’s independence gets stuck at the preschool level. He constantly needs to be monitored in his studies, forced to sit down for lessons and stimulate interest in them. True, this does not affect his general mental status as much as, say, mental or speech development.

The expediency of forming at the stage of preschool childhood an individual who does not passively contemplate reality, but actively transforms it, is outlined in a number of studies and regulatory legal documents. Thus, in the “Concept of Preschool Education” it is noted that it is necessary to “encourage children to take initiative and independence”; it defines the main provisions for the formation of not just a social individual, but a socially active personality.

The formation of independence in children of senior preschool age will be carried out most successfully if:

-parental attitudes towards the formation of independence in children of senior preschool age have been established;

- the criteria and levels of formation of independence of older preschoolers have been determined, taking into account its specifics;

– pedagogical conditions are implemented: the use of a developed program for developing the independence of older preschoolers.

One of the system-forming qualities of an individual is independence, which acquires special weight in the conditions of the modern and future socio-economic situation. The development of this quality leads to the development of the preschooler’s personality as a whole.

The need for the formation and development of independence is dictated by the needs of society for non-standard people who can think creatively and make discoveries for the benefit of humanity. And the solution to this issue is reflected in the process of developing independence, which allows a person to pose new problems and find new solutions.

Independence – independence, freedom from external influences, coercion, from outside support and assistance. Independence – the ability to act independently, make judgments, have initiative, and determination. Such definitions are given by the Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language. In pedagogy, this is one of the volitional spheres of the individual. This is the ability not to be influenced by various factors, to act on the basis of one’s views and motives.

M. Montessori considered autonomy and independence as a biological quality of a person. Nature has given people the opportunity to develop them to form all the necessary skills, realize abilities, and master knowledge. All steps of a child’s development - from acquired skill in movements, in learning to roll over, sit, crawl, walk, to the formation of social and communicative reactions and skills (gestures, speech, intonation, behavioral aspects...) - are a child’s step towards independence from adults.

Three stages can be outlined in the development of independence.

The first stage is when the child acts in his usual conditions, in which basic habits were developed, without reminders, encouragement and help from an adult (he himself removes building material after playing; he himself goes to wash his hands when he is called to the table; he himself says “please” ” and “thank you” when asking for something or thanking for help).

The second stage—the child independently uses familiar methods of action in new, unusual, but close and homogeneous situations. For example, having learned to clean her room, Natasha, without prompting from adults, swept her grandmother’s room herself and put the dishes in an unfamiliar closet. Without her mother’s request, Ira herself brought a chair from the room into the kitchen and invited the neighbor, who came to see her mother, to sit down. In kindergarten she was taught to offer a chair to guests.

At the third stage, a further transfer is possible. The mastered rule acquires a generalized character and becomes a criterion for the child to determine his behavior in any conditions.

Thus, independence is always a product of submission to the demands of adults and at the same time the child’s own initiative. And the better, deeper, and more meaningfully a child has mastered the rules of behavior, the greater his ability to proactively and independently apply them in new, diverse living conditions.

Important indicators of a child’s social competence are voluntariness - the ability to control one’s behavior in accordance with ideas, rules, and norms; the ability to build cooperative relationships in the process of training and education; competence in the field of social and labor activities; self-organization skills, ability to work in a team. Part of social competence is the child’s competence in the everyday sphere.

Analyzing the acquired skills and the qualities being formed that correspond to key competencies (general cultural, physical, cognitive, value-semantic, communicative, personal competencies), one can easily identify independence as one of the qualities of a socially competent person or as the basis for the formation of other significant social qualities, such as, for example , as subjective activity, creative initiative, self-knowledge, self-perception, self-change, self-development. By and large, the child’s independence is the basis for the formation of all key competencies. The child’s lack of manifestation in independent active activity leads to the impossibility of him acquiring general cultural, cognitive, and personal competencies, i.e. i.e. leads to social immaturity.It is through active activity, independent trial and error that a child gains experience in various areas of life, including social.

The development of independence in preschool age is associated with the child’s mastery of various types of activities - (play, work), in which he acquires the opportunity to demonstrate his subjective position.

The independence of children unfolds from independence of a reproductive nature to independence with elements of creativity, with a steady increase in the role of children's consciousness, self-control and self-esteem in the implementation of activities.

Each activity has a unique impact on the development of different components of independence.

1. Thus, the game contributes to the development of activity and initiative.

Different approaches to children's play are reflected in many works. Among these approaches, one can highlight the explanation of the nature of the essence of children's play, as a form of communication (M. I. Lisina), or as a form of activity, including the assimilation of adult activities (D. B. Elkonin), or as a manifestation and condition of mental development (Piaget AND.).

Each of these approaches, while highlighting some aspect of the game, ultimately turns out to be insufficient to explain the essence and specifics of children's play as a whole.

Despite the fact that gaming activity is leading in preschool age, its importance does not decrease subsequently. L.S. Vygotsky noted that in preschool age, play and activities, play and work, form two main channels along which the activities of preschoolers flow. Vygotsky L.S. I saw in play an inexhaustible source of personal development, a sphere that defines the “zone of proximal development.”

Hence, the essence of the problem lies in the influence of the game on the development of children’s independence, creative abilities, and personal qualities. The game creates a positive emotional background, against which all mental processes occur most actively. The use of gaming techniques and methods, their sequence and interrelation will help in solving this problem.

The relevance of the problem raised is caused by the need of psychologists, teachers, and parents for improved methods of psychological and pedagogical influence on the developing personality of the child in order to develop the independence of children.

Perhaps the game seduces the child with its incomprehensible variety of situations that require him to actively demonstrate individuality, intelligence, resourcefulness, creativity and independence.

2. Work activity provides favorable opportunities for developing purposefulness and awareness of actions, and perseverance in achieving results. Already a young child has a desire to independently perform actions with objects related to the world of adults (wash dishes, set the table, vacuum, etc.). This desire can be in demand and developed in various types of household work. The formation of household work skills is necessary, first of all, for the development of independence.

In older preschool age, the child’s attitude towards his responsibilities changes and responsibility for his work appears. A new motive appears - “to do for others”, the child takes initiative, his attitude towards himself changes, and objective self-esteem appears.

By performing basic work skills, children begin to work together, distribute responsibilities among themselves, negotiate with each other, carry out their actions so that the other can successfully continue them.

Older preschoolers help each other, control, correct each other, show initiative and independence, have a correct attitude towards evaluating their work, rarely praise themselves, and often show modesty when evaluating their work (Elkonin D.B.).

Elementary forms of household labor are interesting and important because a unique relationship is established between a child and an adult: these are relationships of real mutual assistance, coordination of actions, and distribution of responsibilities. All these relationships, arising in preschool age, continue to develop in the future.

3. Productive activities develop the child’s independence from adults and the desire to find adequate means of self-expression.

4. Communication. At preschool age, in addition to communication with adults, communication with peers is differentiated and reaches an expanded form, the basis of which is a relationship of mutual respect, possible only between equals. By the age of five to seven, a peer acquires individuality in the child’s eyes. An older preschooler shows a keen interest in his friends, which manifests itself in the form of active imitation and a desire for competition.

According to M.I. Lisina, a child’s communication with peers leads to the emergence of an image of another person and, at the same time, an image of himself. [35, p.70]

5. Self-organization – activity aimed at searching and creatively transforming reality, high adaptability, active mobilization of the individual’s internal resources. In psychology, human activity is considered as internal (mental) and external (motor) activity, regulated by a conscious goal.

Based on the above, independence is presented as the initial basis. The launching pad for the formation of self-organization as a whole, which is closely related to the subjective activity of the individual.

One of the common factors of positive communication between children is considered to be “subjective personality activity,” presented in the form of independence—a quality undoubtedly necessary for the development of a child’s personality. Independence, acting as a personal factor, can determine the positive relationships of children in the family.

Hard work and independence, a developed ability for self-regulation create favorable opportunities for the development of preschool children outside of direct communication with adults or peers. We are talking, in particular, about the ability of children of this age to spend hours alone doing what they love. At this age, it is important to provide the child with various didactic educational games.

Indicators of the independence of an older preschooler are: the desire to solve problems of activity without help from other people, the ability to set a goal for an activity, carry out basic planning, implement what was planned and get a result adequate to the goal, as well as the ability to show initiative and creativity in solving emerging problems.

A significant role in the process of formation of independence is played by the child’s ability to analyze and introspection of actions and relationships in joint affairs, the ability to correlate his opportunities for participation with the capabilities of a friend. The presence of all these indicators in children allows them to quickly assert themselves in general activities, find their place and use their abilities wisely. Joint activities with peers and appropriate guidance of this process on the part of an adult are important conditions for the development of independence in older preschool age.

Independence is formed as a moral-volitional quality. In older preschool age, it is associated with developing in children the ability to manage their behavior, show useful initiative, and perseverance in achieving goals and results. It presupposes the ability to be guided in actions by moral ideas about the rules of behavior (not to suppress the initiative of less independent peers, to take into account their interests, to show mutual assistance, to share your knowledge with friends, to teach what you can do yourself). The task of parents is to give the behavior of preschoolers a moral character and direction.

Older preschoolers begin to be especially interested in the personality of another person. Children strive, together with adults, to discuss the merits and actions of each other and the people around them, and evaluate them from the point of view of compliance with social norms. In these cases, the child’s independence acquires a moral orientation.

The development of independence in self-service has the goal of consolidating and bringing acquired skills to a certain level of automatism. The ability to independently monitor appearance is an important responsibility of a preschooler. Evidence of the successful development of independence of older preschoolers in self-service is the quality of self-service processes, sufficient speed of execution, the ability to look after oneself without reminders, put oneself in order (clean clothes, sew on a button), the ability to notice a disorder in the appearance of a peer, point to him, help eliminate it. The habit of self-service contributes to the formation of elements of self-control and self-organization. It disciplines children, allows them to reduce the time spent on routine processes, freeing them up for a variety of activities.

The highest level in the development of independence of preschool children is the ability to independently organize and participate in collective activities. It further improves everyone’s skills and masters new skills and methods of collective cooperation. A low level of skills and poor performance do not allow the child to take a worthy place in collective activities and cope well with the assigned role. This reduces the interest of peers in him, prevents him from believing in himself, and inhibits the desire for independence. Therefore, the development of individual independence in various types of activities, the systematic accumulation of experience is a prerequisite for the development of independence in collective affairs.

Characteristic features of developed independence:

a) the ability to perform work on one’s own initiative, to notice the need for certain actions (water flowers if the soil is dry; when you see a mess, eliminate it);

b) the ability to perform work without outside help, without the constant supervision of an adult;

c) consciousness of actions, the presence of basic planning (the ability to understand the purpose of the work and foresee its result);

d) the ability to give a fairly adequate assessment of one’s work and exercise basic self-control;

e) the ability to transfer known methods of action to new conditions.

The lag in the development of independence in preschoolers is largely a consequence of improper organization of children’s activities, errors in upbringing: excessive regulation of activities, constant control and guardianship, the predominance of direct methods of directing children’s actions, learning to act by directly imitating an adult’s demonstration, etc. And vice versa, upbringing independence is successful when an adult actively encourages children to take initiative, teaches them to independently plan upcoming work, develops the ability to talk about upcoming work, highlight its goal and result.

Modern research has shown the effectiveness of using special external visual aids in older groups that make it easier for the child to independently complete certain tasks and organize activities correctly.

In the process of life, the child’s personality is subject to constant control by adults, the external environment, and the nearest microsociety. Gradually, he develops a self-organizing principle, which, in our opinion, is expressed in independence, activity, and harmonization of relationships between members of the team and the family itself.

Fostering independence is an integral requirement of today's reality, and presupposes the formation of purposefulness, independence, breadth of views, thinking, flexibility of mind and actions, entrepreneurship and a sober analysis of phenomena and situations occurring in life.

Among the indicators of independence, experts note:

– the desire to solve problems of activity without the help and participation of other people

– ability to set goals for activities

– implementation of basic activity planning

– implementation of the plan and obtaining a result adequate to the goal

It is at older preschool age that the child is already able to regulate his behavior in accordance with need. “... In children of senior preschool age, the words “must,” “can,” and “cannot” become the basis for self-regulation when they are mentally pronounced by the child himself. This is the child’s first independent manifestation of willpower...”

With the transition to school education, the nature of independence changes: the child must independently navigate the situation, think independently, and express his point of view.


In their practice, in order to awaken initiative and independence in preschoolers, educators use their own methods and techniques. Such methods also include didactic and developmental games, which help to gain confidence in their actions and guide them to make their own choices in the process of joint and independent activities.

1) first, children present the material they have already studied;

2) then children are asked to answer questions;

3) after this, children learn to generalize knowledge.

Such didactic games include exercises such as “Pick clothes for a doll”, “Help a friend choose a book”, “Choose a dress for mom”, etc. Most importantly, the child must subsequently explain the reasons for his choice. This is the whole essence of independence and initiative: the child must feel responsible and act not spontaneously, but expediently.

The role of the teacher in these exercises is to control the correctness of choice. If a child has chosen a dress for a doll without taking into account weather conditions or, for example, where the doll is going in this outfit, then the teacher can unobtrusively suggest, while leaving the right of choice to the child himself.

We also instill independence throughout the day:

  1. While performing health procedures.

Children are given a choice of types of gymnastic exercises, health mats, and sports games. We also invite them to add some movements, game conditions or game methods themselves. Thus, we awaken not only initiative, but also interest, develop imagination and thinking.

  1. In the process of work.

The most extensive area of ​​instilling independence is work activity. During their work activities, children carry out simple instructions from the teacher without his help. Based on this, we can formulate the following working hypothesis: the development of independence in older children through household labor will be effective if the teacher creates the conditions:

  • stimulates the manifestation of independence of older preschoolers by creating objective conditions for household work;
  • encourages the initiative of children in an effort to notice and eliminate violations of order in the group and on the site;
  • offers children collective tasks of a household nature.

In our group, the most favorite work is rearranging the doll corner (for girls) and remodeling the car park (for boys). The girls diligently discuss every time where to put the sofa and which side to put the dollhouse on. And the boys are seriously thinking about how they can build a garage so that it can accommodate several more cars. During the discussions, disputes naturally arise. Everyone wants to pretend to have their own idea. At the same time, learning to resolve conflict situations and controversial issues, children gain invaluable experience in independently choosing a compromise.

  1. In the process of joint activities of children with the teacher.

During joint activities, we try to give children as much freedom as possible in choosing various means or objects with which we work at this time. Theatrical activities are especially exciting for them. Before the theatrical performance, together with the children, we make attributes for the performance. Children independently, albeit under the guidance of a teacher, make individual parts of the characters’ bodies or clothes, independently choosing the color, fabric, size and method of production.

  1. In the process of developing communicative qualities.

The system of game exercises and tasks for the development of children's communication abilities consists of four blocks:

  1. develop the ability to collaborate;
  2. develop the ability to actively listen;
  3. We develop the ability to express ourselves independently;
  4. We develop the ability to independently process information correctly.

In addition, a game library has been created on this topic, containing speech games and exercises that pursue common goals: to develop auditory perception; learn to ask open and closed questions; develop speech creativity, the ability to transform; the ability to highlight the main idea of ​​what was said, summarize, develop the thoughts of the interlocutor, develop the ability to correctly process information.

5. During classes.

In the daily development of lessons, we set the following goals: to cultivate independence and initiative, to form the child’s self-awareness, self-confidence, and to teach the child to boldly express his opinions. During drawing, modeling, and appliqué lessons, children are given the choice of plot, design, and color scheme as desired. Educators take into account temperament, abilities, and peculiarities of the style of upbringing in the family, which significantly influence the pace of development of independence.

The main principles for developing independence and initiative that I apply in my practice are the following:

1. Make sure that the child discovers the annoying consequences of what he was once too lazy to do. For example, if he discovers that the markers have dried out because he forgot to put caps on them, he should not rush to give him new ones. Let him draw for a week or two with pencils or paints. Every time a child hints with a sigh that it would be nice to change the markers, I respond and express doubts: what if the new markers won’t last long? In the future, memories of this difficult period of creativity will motivate the child to monitor the condition of his things, treat them with care and, most importantly, understand that he has to answer for every action.

2. When demanding independence from a child, I am guided by the principle of expediency. Let's say you shouldn't ask him to put his toys back right after playing. Preschoolers do one thing for 15-20 minutes, and if they clean up after each such interval, they will simply get tired and lose interest in the game, being preoccupied not so much with the game itself as with cleaning up after the game. The request to put everything in its place after the end of the game, so as not to trip over the toys, will be more understandable to the child.

3. I try to formulate the scope and content of responsibilities as specifically as possible. For example: “After dinner, you need to clear your plate from the table to help Anna Petrovna,” and not “you need to clean up after yourself!”

4. I try to explain to the child the meaning and ultimate goal of the actions he performs. Statements that “all children dress themselves” or “people will laugh if they see adults helping you” are bad arguments. The child will not pay attention to these words, believing that he can tolerate other people’s ridicule for the sake of convenience. It’s better to talk about how many interesting things you can do in the time saved if you dress or undress yourself without waiting for help: watch half of the cartoon about Ilya Muromets or four episodes about Luntik, color six drawings or play longer in the sandbox.

5. If a child is lazy and categorically refuses to leave his cozy place, I ask him to tell him about his future plans. This request will make the child think about what he can do. Sometimes a little trick helps to drive a sloth away. Express your joy that he is sitting and not disturbing anyone. Then ask to sit there for another two hours so that we can work with the rest of the children on sculpting an animal, drawing an airplane, etc. As a rule, after a few minutes the question is heard: “Can I come with you too?”

At the same time, psychologists have long established that each age period has its own “leading activity” - that is, an area of ​​interest that is currently important to the child, and where he is trying to express himself. I try in every possible way to encourage any initiative of the child, to guide and support him, to stimulate him to action. For example, make flowers from colored paper, draw them, grow them with your own hands, help the teacher care for the flowers. Only in this way will the child learn one of the main rules of independent behavior: his actions must end in a result that does not violate the accepted rules.

The ability to formulate a goal and foresee the result are fundamental components of independence. But they are difficult to fully implement if the child has not developed the skills of different types of activities. For example, adults often stop children from trying to perform some action, such as sweeping the floor. Because they know that instead of the desired cleanliness, there will be clouds of dust in the room. It turns out that another way to develop independence is to train specific skills.

Adults usually believe that a child should perform this or that action independently. It is this idea that they are trying to convey to their child and, as a result, they are faced with misunderstanding.

Firstly, a child cannot act like a wind-up toy and mechanically follow the instructions of adults. It is important for him to know why, that is, for what purpose, he fulfills this or that request. We try to clearly explain the original outcome of this assignment.

Secondly, the child needs to clearly understand the algorithm of actions: how and what exactly needs to be done.

Thirdly, the child should be explained why he should break away from the game and switch to a boring activity proposed by an adult. Let's say the teacher's assertion that she is tired and cannot make the bed for him looks unconvincing, since every time after getting up she very briskly unrolls the bedspread.

Independence is fostered when children perform responsibilities to serve themselves and loved ones; the level of independence is associated with the development of social experience of work activity, the possibility of a child demonstrating a subjective position in work. The independence of children unfolds from independence of a reproductive nature to independence with elements of creativity, with a steady increase in the role of children's consciousness, self-control and self-esteem in the implementation of activities.

“Independence” is a very multifaceted and psychologically complex phenomenon; it is rather a meaning-forming, qualitative characteristic of any sphere of activity and personality, which has its own specific criteria.

The final touch in the portrait of independence is persistence in achieving results, when failure does not become a reason to abandon what is planned. In this regard, I would like to talk about the educational aspects of instilling independence. Developing willpower, patience and responsibility is very important. The role of the educator is to stimulate actions that bring the work started to completion. It is especially valuable if the child thinks of joining forces with someone around him. In our case, a teacher.

MAGAZINE Preschooler.RF

Development of children's initiative and independence of preschool children in the context of the implementation of the Federal State Educational Standard.

Mirontseva O.S. MADOU No. 41 “Swallow”

Independence – independence, freedom from external influences, coercion, and outside help.

Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language D.N. Ushakov

Independence is a generalized personality trait, manifested in initiative, criticality, adequate self-esteem and a sense of personal responsibility for one’s activities and behavior.

The Federal State Educational Standard states that one of the main principles of preschool education is to support children in various activities. Support for the initiative is also a condition necessary for creating a social situation for the development of children.

At the stage of completion of preschool education, the targets determined by the Federal State Educational Standard provide for the following age characteristics of children's capabilities:

  • show initiative and independence in various activities;
  • choose your occupation, participants in joint activities;
  • demonstrate the ability to exercise volition;
  • independently come up with explanations for natural phenomena and people’s actions;
  • demonstrate the ability to make your own decisions.

The development of children's initiative and independence is carried out:


  • gaming;
  • communicative,
  • educational and research
  • perception of fiction and folklore,
  • productive,
  • musical,
  • motor,
  • elementary labor;


  • directly organized;
  • in critical moments
  • in independent; activities;

Federal State Educational Standards requirements for PPROS

They are aimed at developing the activity of children, with the help of which they become creators of their subject environment, and in the process of personal developmental interaction, creators of their personality.

  • Conditions for organizing inclusive education;
  • Taking into account national-cultural and climatic conditions;
  • Content-rich, transformable, multifunctional, variable, accessible and safe.

Principles of the approach to organizing a subject-spatial developmental educational environment

  • Principle of development and integration
  • Activity principle
  • The principle of stability and dynamism of the development environment
  • The principle of integration and flexible zoning
  • The principle of combining conventional and extraordinary elements in the aesthetic organization of the environment
  • The principle of distance, position during interaction
  • The principle of taking into account gender and age differences in children
  • The principle of the emotionality of the environment, individual comfort and emotional well-being of the child and adult The principle of openness - closedness

Children's initiative and independence are manifested in the free activity of children according to their choice and interests. The opportunity to play, draw, design, compose, etc., in accordance with one’s own interests, is the most important source of the emotional well-being of a child in kindergarten.

In the form of independent initiative activities in kindergarten, all types of activities of the child can be carried out, since each activity has a unique impact on the development of different components of independence.

The concept of “creative initiative” . Creative initiative should be understood as the child’s involvement in a story-based game as the main activity of a preschooler.

Thank you for your attention

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How independent should a child be? Traditional and modern pedagogy about the problem

The development of pedagogical science has led to the fact that the status of the child has been radically revised. And if previously he was perceived exclusively as a dependent family member who needed to be raised without asking his wishes and opinions. That is why the development of independence was not given due time and attention. As the child grew older, this inevitably led to many difficulties. By requiring the child to be able to make decisions, parents did not allow him to fully feel freedom and express himself. Because he has no experience making decisions and behavior in many situations.

Raising a child according to pre-defined, clearly defined instructions may be to some extent convenient for parents, but it is absolutely unacceptable for children. And the main disadvantage of this approach is that the child is completely deprived of independence, remaining infantile and unsure of himself and his own capabilities for many years.

A line of images for independence

That is why, at a certain stage, parents need to answer themselves as clearly as possible the question - how do they want to see their children - independent, free or self-confident? Or comfortable?

When raising children, many parents also try to deprive them of independence, masking this with the appearance of care and overprotection due to age. In fact, such conditions do not allow the child to make independent decisions, and therefore bear responsibility for them. And by protecting the child from mistakes, parents deprive him of the opportunity to gain life experience that is important to him. That is why the development of independence and initiative in preschoolers takes on special meaning.

What is overprotection and its results

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